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Frank L. Gardner

Consistent with the Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology’s mission, the current special issue on psychophysiology and neuroscience in sport has brought together a variety of timely papers exploring the relationship between physiological processes and both sport performance and personal well-being. These final thoughts observe patterns noted among the papers in this issue, highlight future research directions, and most importantly, clarify where this emerging technology and its associated procedures currently stand in the evidence-based practice of clinical sport psychology.

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Leonard Zaichkowsky

While clinical psychology has embraced the importance of psychophysiology and neuroscience when considering the client condition, the field of sport psychology has been slower to consider the potential importance of this area for athletic clientele. Therefore, this special issue of the Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology was conceptualized and constructed to describe the current state of psychophysiological and neuroscience research and illustrate how clinical sport psychologists may, in the future, use technologies such as biofeedback/neurofeedback and physiological measurement (EMG, EEG, skin temperature, EDR, HR, HRV, respiration, and hormonal responses) with high-level athletes from a variety of sports for both performance enhancement and diagnosis and management of head injury. As Guest Editor of this unique special issue, I have written the present introduction to highlight the issue’s important mission. This introductory paper sets the stage for five informative and cutting-edge articles by leading professionals. In all, the articles cover an array of topics on psychophysiology and neuroscience in sport, such as (a) the theoretical underpinnings of biofeedback/neurofeedback, (b) the empirical application of such approaches, (c) the current state of efficacy with regard to this newer line of research and practice, and (d) the use of fMRI in understanding psychological processes in sport. I hope that this timely special issue provokes many additional questions and advanced research in our collective pursuit to assist athletes.

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Julie Vaughan-Graham, Kara Patterson, Karl Zabjek and Cheryl A. Cott

( Clark et al., 2010 ; Levin et al., 2016 ). In the current neuroscience literature, motor recovery at the kinematic level is defined as “the reappearance of typical movement patterns and sequences used before stroke for performance of a task,” while compensation is defined as “the use of additional or

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Neil Maguire, Paul Chesterton and Cormac Ryan

preregistration pain education methods are evaluated. A particular model of pain education is pain neuroscience education (PNE). The PNE has primarily been used as an intervention for patients with chronic pain. PNE uses current understanding of neuroscience to help reconceptualize the experience of pain. The aim

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Carolee Winstein

( Adkins, Schallert, & Goldstein, 2009 ; Corbett, Jeffers, Nguemeni, Gomez-Smith, & Livingston-Thomas, 2015 ). Nonpharmacologic Stroke Recovery Trials—Translational Hurdles? The revolution in neuroscience that unleashed the potential of brain plasticity opened new avenues for recovery-supportive therapies

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Bradley D. Hatfield

The relevance of kinesiology to the major issues of public health facing the nation is increasing with time. Of great importance is the area of exercise neuroscience in which remarkable developments have occurred in the past 35 years. The primary investigative efforts to date have been devoted to the impact of exercise on normal brain aging and recent efforts have also focused on the neurocognitive benefit to brain development in children. However, little work has been conducted in those with neurological disorders. The literature includes a number of animal studies that offer biological plausibility for the positive influence of exercise observed on brain structure and cognition in normal human subjects and, collectively, these studies provide a foundation on which to examine the role of exercise treatment in some of the major brain disorders that afflict adults and children today. These include the dementias, stroke, traumatic brain disorder (TBI), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and attentional deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A role for exercise in building resilience to such disorders is discussed here that may assist in reducing the financial and emotional burden of these affictions.

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Amber M. Leiker, Anupriya Pathania, Matthew W. Miller and Keith R. Lohse

of Neuroscience, 19 ( 10 ), 3723 – 3730 . PubMed ID: 10234004 doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.19-10-03723.1999 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.19-10-03723.1999 Carter , M.J. , Carlsen , A.N. , & Ste-Marie , D.M. ( 2014 ). Self-controlled feedback is effective if it is based on the learner’s performance: A

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Nicholas J. Smeeton, Matyas Varga, Joe Causer and A. Mark Williams

anticipation and motor resonance in elite basketball players . Nature Neuroscience, 11 ( 9 ), 1109 – 1116 . PubMed doi:10.1038/nn.2182 10.1038/nn.2182 Altman , D.G. , & Royston , P. ( 2006 ). The cost of dichotomising continuous variables . British Medical Journal, 332 ( 7549 ), 1080 . doi:10

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Ina M. Tarkka, Pekka Hautasaari, Heidi Pesonen, Eini Niskanen, Mirva Rottensteiner, Jaakko Kaprio, Andrej M. Savić and Urho M. Kujala

; 28 ( 11 ): 2319 – 2324 . PubMed ID: 19019200 doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06510.x 19019200 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06510.x 22. Tarkka IM , Micheloyannis S , Stokic DS . Generators for human P300 elicited by somatosensory stimuli using multiple dipole source analysis . Neuroscience . 1996

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Steven J. Howard, Caylee J. Cook, Rihlat Said-Mohamed, Shane A. Norris and Catherine E. Draper

Background:

An area of growth in physical activity research has involved investigating effects of physical activity on children’s executive functions. Many of these efforts seek to increase the energy expenditure of young children as a healthy and low-cost way to affect physical, health, and cognitive outcomes.

Methods:

We review theory and research from neuroscience and evolutionary biology, which suggest that interventions seeking to increase the energy expenditure of young children must also consider the energetic trade-offs that occur to accommodate changing metabolic costs of brain development.

Results:

According to Life History Theory, and supported by recent evidence, the high relative energy-cost of early brain development requires that other energy-demanding functions of development (ie, physical growth, activity) be curtailed. This is important for interventions seeking to dramatically increase the energy expenditure of young children who have little excess energy available, with potentially negative cognitive consequences. Less energy-demanding physical activities, in contrast, may yield psychosocial and cognitive benefits while not overburdening an underweight child’s already scarce energy supply.

Conclusions:

While further research is required to establish the extent to which increases in energy-demanding physical activities may compromise or displace energy available for brain development, we argue that action cannot await these findings.