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Shuge Zhang, Stuart Beattie, Amanda Pitkethly and Chelsey Dempsey

’s transformational leadership on training behaviors. Specifically, our current approach allows us to examine the replicability of Woodman et al.’s initial findings that extraversion and neuroticism may impair athletes’ training behaviors. We are then able to examine further whether specific transformational

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Ryan E. Rhodes, Kerry S. Courneya and Leslie A. Hayduk

This study investigated the moderating influence of the five-factor model of personality (FFM) on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in the exercise domain. Although an analysis of all possible moderation effects was conducted, it was hypothesized that high extraversion (E) and conscientiousness (C) individuals would demonstrate significantly stronger relationships between intentions and exercise behavior than those low in E and C. Conversely, it was expected that high neuroticism (N) individuals would show a significantly weaker relationship between intention and exercise behavior than those low in N. A total of 300 undergraduate students completed measures of the FFM, TPB, and a 2-week follow-up of exercise behavior. Two-group structural equation models of the TPB were created using a median split for each personality trait. Overall, 5 significant (p < .05) moderating effects were found. Specifically, N was found to moderate the effect of subjective norm on intention. E also moderated the effects of subjective norm on intention as well as intention on behavior. C moderated the effects of affective attitude on intention and intention on behavior. Theorized influences for the presence or absence of personality moderators are discussed. The results generally support the possibility of personality being a moderator of the TPB but highlight the need for future research and replication.

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Yong Jae Ko, Yonghwan Chang, Wonseok Jang, Michael Sagas and John Otto Spengler

for agreeableness, four out of the Big Five personality (BFP) traits (i.e., extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and openness) were significant predictors of participation in physical activities. At the same time, several personality studies have been conducted to explain sport spectator

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Kathryn E. Wilson, Bhibha M. Das, Ellen M. Evans and Rodney K. Dishman

Background:

A positive association between physical activity and mental health is well established, particularly for lower symptoms of depression and anxiety among active adults. However, it is unclear whether the association is influenced by personality, which might moderate or otherwise explain the association. In addition, past studies have not confirmed the association using an objective measure of physical activity.

Objective:

Our objective was to examine whether Extraversion and Neuroticism influence the association between mental health and physical activity measured by convergent self-reports and an accelerometer.

Methods:

Structural equation modeling was used to test competing models of the relationships between personality, physical activity, and mental health in a sample of female undergraduates.

Results:

In bivariate analysis, mental health was negatively related to Neuroticism and positively related to Extraversion, self-reported physical activity (which was related only to Extraversion, positively), and objective physical activity (which was related only to Neuroticism, negatively). In structural equation modeling, a 3-way interaction indicated that objective physical activity and mental health were unrelated in extraverts, but related positively in neurotic-introverts and negatively in stable-introverts.

Conclusions:

Higher levels of physical activity were associated with better mental health only in neurotic-introverts, who are at higher risk for mental health problems.

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Jamie L. Shapiro, Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius and Judy L. Van Raalte

The purposes of this study were to investigate patterns of emotional response to reconstructive surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee following sport injury and to examine the extent to which neuroticism differed across patterns of adjustment. Participants were 73 patients (51% recreational athletes, 46% competitive athletes, 3% nonathletes) who had ACL reconstruction surgery and who had low levels of negative mood before surgery. Participants completed measures of personality and negative mood before surgery and completed daily assessments of negative mood for 6 weeks postsurgery. The negative mood of participants was classified into three patterns for two different time periods. Participants with patterns of resilience outnumbered those with patterns of disturbance. Participants with patterns involving mood disturbance one week after surgery had significantly higher presurgery neuroticism levels. Practitioners should target individuals with high neuroticism before surgery for emotion management interventions to prevent mood disturbance following ACL surgery.

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Kamuran Yerlikaya Balyan, Serdar Tok, Arkun Tatar, Erdal Binboga and Melih Balyan

The present study examined the association between personality, competitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and physiological arousal in athletes with high and low anxiety levels. Anxiety was manipulated by means of an incentive. Fifty male participants, first, completed the Five Factor Personality Inventory and their resting electro dermal activity (EDA) was recorded. In the second stage, participants were randomly assigned to high or low anxiety groups. Individual EDAs were recorded again to determine precompetition physiological arousal. Participants also completed the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) and played a computer-simulated soccer match. Results showed that neuroticism was related to both CSAI-2 components and physiological arousal only in the group receiving the incentive. Winners had higher levels of cognitive anxiety and lower levels of physiological arousal than losers. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that an athlete’s neurotic personality may influence his cognitive and physiological responses in a competition.

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Peter R. Giacobbi Jr., Brent Hardin, Nancy Frye, Heather A. Hausenblas, Sam Sears and Amber Stegelin

We assessed within- and between-person associations among appraisals of daily life events, positive and negative affective states, and exercise behavior and the moderating role of personality for the exercise/affect relationship with individuals with physical disabilities. Forty-eight individuals with physical disabilities completed measures of personality and daily assessments of affect, exercise, and cognitive appraisals of life events for eight consecutive days. The results revealed that exercise behavior was associated with increased positive and decreased negative affect even when associations between daily events and affect were statistically controlled. Finally, aspects of personality, especially Neuroticism, significantly moderated the exercise/affect relationship for both positive and negative affect.

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Jeanette Frost Ebstrup, Mette Aadahl, Lene Falgaard Eplov, Charlotta Pisinger and Torben Jørgensen

Background:

Leisure-time sitting-time (LTST) is seen as a possible independent risk-factor for physical and mental health, but research on psychological determinants is sparse. Associations between sitting-time and the personality dimensions of neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and the role of general self-efficacy (GSE) were investigated.

Methods:

A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Denmark, in 2006−08. Men and women (N = 3471) aged 18 to 69, were randomly sampled in the suburbs of Copenhagen. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the General Self-Efficacy-Scale, and the Physical Activity Scale 2 were used.

Results:

Negative associations were found between LTST and extroversion, conscientiousness, and openness, while neuroticism showed a positive association (R 2 = .13). The associations with agreeableness became significantly positive, when GSE was included. All 5 associations were mediated by GSE, with mediation proportions between 23%−60%; but with modest effect sizes.

Conclusions:

These cross-sectional results indicate that personality traits and GSE could be considered as associates of LTST; but future longitudinal data are necessary to make causal statements and rule out alternative models fitting data.

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Agnès Bonnet, Vincent Bréjard and Jean-Louis Pedinielli

Objectives for this study were, first, to describe individual differences in risk taking among scuba divers. Differences were examined on personality dimensions and psycho-affective variables, including positive and negative affect, as well as alexithymia. In addition, the study examined contributors to two types of behavior associated with scuba diving—deliberate risk taking and controlled participation in a high-risk sport (non-risk-taking). A cross-sectional design was used, and 131 participants were assessed on extraversion-neuroticism, affectivity, and alexithymia. The broad dimensions of personality and affectivity explained risk taking among divers. Alexithymia differentially predicted two types of risktaking behavior (direct or short-term and indirect or long-term) and was associated significantly with short-term risk-taking behavior.

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Brendan Smith, Stephanie Hanrahan, Ruth Anderson and Lyndel Abbott

Leaving home or transitioning to another environment is a part of every individual’s personal growth and is often considered to be a significant developmental milestone. The distress that individuals experience with this transition has been identified as homesickness. Elite sporting institutions, such as the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS), have recognized that problems associated with homesickness appear to be a predominant cause of poor well-being and dropout among athletes living in a national sports institute. This study aimed to investigate if individual personality traits and coping styles could predict levels of homesickness in these athletes. Neuroticism, self-esteem, and mental escape were significant predictors of homesickness. These results suggest that athletes who are vulnerable to homesickness can be identified before the commencement of their sporting scholarships so they can be treated accordingly.