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Daniel Arvidsson, Elias Johannesson, Lars Bo Andersen, Magnus Karlsson, Per Wollmer, Ola Thorsson and Magnus Dencker

function 2 and have been targeted in physical activity research. These neurotrophins increase in different brain regions (eg, hippocampus) after exercise in rats. 3 In addition to neural cells, NGF and BDNF are also produced by other cell types, such as inflammatory cells, structural cells, and muscle

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Maria Francesca Piacentini, Oliver C. Witard, Cajsa Tonoli, Sarah R. Jackman, James E. Turner, Arie K. Kies, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Kevin D. Tipton and Romain Meeusen

Context:

Monitoring mood state is a useful tool for avoiding nonfunctional overreaching. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in stress-related mood disorders.

Purpose:

To investigate the impact of intensified training-induced mood disturbance on plasma BDNF concentrations at rest and in response to exercise.

Methods:

Eight cyclists performed 1 wk of normal (NT), 1 wk of intensified (INT), and 1 wk of recovery (REC) training. Fasted blood samples were collected before and after exercise on day 7 of each training week and analyzed for plasma BDNF and cortisol concentrations. A 24-item Profile of Mood State questionnaire was administered on day 7 of each training week, and global mood score (GMS) was calculated.

Results:

Time-trial performance was impaired during INT (P = .01) and REC (P = .02) compared with NT. Basal plasma cortisol (NT = 153 ± 16 ng/mL, INT = 130 ± 11 ng/mL, REC = 150 ± 14 ng/ml) and BDNF (NT = 484 ± 122 pg/mL, INT = 488 ± 122 pg/mL, REC = 383 ± 56 pg/mL) concentrations were similar between training conditions. Likewise, similar exercise-induced increases in cortisol and BDNF concentrations were observed between training conditions. GMS was 32% greater during INT vs NT (P < .001).

Conclusions:

Consistent with a state of functional overreaching (FOR), impairments in performance and mood state with INT were restored after 1 wk of REC. These results support evidence for mood changes before plasma BDNF concentrations as a biochemical marker of FOR and that cortisol is not a useful marker for predicting FOR.

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Jeffrey D. Labban and Jennifer L. Etnier

system by using neurotrophins . Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 19 ( 4 ), 283 – 295 . PubMed ID: 16263961 doi:10.1177/1545968305280753 10.1177/1545968305280753 Winter , B. , Breitenstein , C. , Mooren , F.C. , Voelker , K. , Fobker , M. , Lechtermann , A. , … Knecht , S. ( 2007

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Kieran J. Marston, Belinda M. Brown, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Sabine Bird, Linda K. Wijaya, Shaun Y. M. Teo, Ralph N. Martins and Jeremiah J. Peiffer

. , Danker-Hopfe , H. , Malbranc , M. , Hartung , H.D. , Anders , D. , . . . Hellweg , R. ( 2007 ). Serum neurotrophins—A study on the time course and influencing factors in a large old age sample . Neurobiology of Aging, 28 ( 9 ), 1436 – 1445 . PubMed ID: 16879899 doi: 10.1016/j

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Bindu P. Gopalan, Mary Dias, Karthika Arumugam, Reena R. D’Souza, Mathew Perumpil, Prasanna Kulkarni, Udaykumar Ranga and Anita Shet

, Olgart Höglund C . Differential regulation of neurotrophin expression in human bronchial smooth muscle cells . Respir Res . 2006 ; 7 ( 1 ): 18 . doi:10.1186/1465-9921-7-18 16441896 10.1186/1465-9921-7-18 25. Lihn AS , Richelsen B , Pedersen SB , Haugaard SB , Rathje GS , Madsbad S

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Carolina Menezes Fiorelli, Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac, Lucas Simieli, Fabiana Araújo Silva, Bianca Fernandes, Gustavo Christofoletti and Fabio Augusto Barbieri

and injured central nervous system by using neurotrophins . Neurorehabil Neural Repair . 2005 ; 19 ( 4 ): 283 – 295 . PubMed ID: 16263961 doi:10.1177/1545968305280753 16263961 10.1177/1545968305280753 34. Vaynman S , Ying Z , Gomez-Pinilla F . Hippocampal BDNF mediates the efficacy of

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Blai Ferrer-Uris, Albert Busquets and Rosa Angulo-Barroso

triggered by an elevation of catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) and neurotrophins (especially BDNF; McMorris, 2016 ; Taubert et al., 2015 ). It seems that concentration increases in norepinephrine and BDNF may be triggered by iE and could have an important role in memory

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Anna-Eva Prick, Jacomine de Lange, Erik Scherder, Jos Twisk and Anne Margriet Pot

identified several molecular mechanisms that may be an explanation for this beneficial effect, such as the enhancement of neurotrophin levels, neurogenesis, and vascularization ( Barnes, 2015 ; Swain et al., 2003 ). Several studies showed the beneficial impact of planned, structured, repetitive, and