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Azam Baheiraei, Zeinab Hamzehgardeshi, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Eesa Mohammadi and AbouAli Vedadhir

Background:

Several studies have shown that physical activity decreases as the age increases. This study was for evaluating the perspectives of health sciences specialists or informants on the strategies for increasing physical activity among Iranian adolescents using Nominal Group Technique (NGT).

Methods:

a semiquantitative/qualitative methodology research using NGT for prioritizing the strategies for alleviating the physical activities among Iranian adolescents based on the opinions of health sciences experts. This study conducted in Tehran, Iran, 2011.

Results:

Overall, 16 items received scores from 2–29 and were further listed as the accepted strategies for promoting physical activity among adolescents. The most and least recommended strategies were respectively in the categories of school, neighborhood and family. This study findings show ‘the constructionist activities or strategies (eg, claim-making, image-making, myth-constructing and framing) among adolescents using main claim-makers of Iranian society, including the state-sponsored media.,’ received the highest score by all the participants of NGT.

Conclusions:

The interesting finding of this study is the special view point of the specialists to role of socioecological factors in promoting physical activity in the context of Iranian society.

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Marjo B. Rinne, Seppo I. Miilunpalo and Ari O. Heinonen

Background:

There is a lack of knowledge of the motor abilities required in different exercise modes which are needed when counseling sedentary middle-aged people to start a physically active lifestyle.

Methods:

Nominal group technique was used to establish the consensus statement concerning motor abilities and physical fitness in 31 exercise modes.

Results:

Walking, running, jogging, and calisthenics were regarded as the most suitable exercise modes for most people with no specific requirements. The most demanding exercise modes of evaluated exercise modes were roller skating, downhill skiing, and martial arts, requiring all five motor abilities. Four abilities were necessary in skating, jazz dance, and ice hockey. When exercising is target-oriented, endurance is trained evidently in 27 out of 31 and muscle strength in 22 out of 31 exercise modes.

Conclusions:

The consensus statement gives theoretical basis for the components of motor abilities and physical fitness components in different exercise modes. The statement is instructive in order to promote health-enhancing physical activity among sedentary people. This study completes the selection of the exercise modes more detailed than current PA recommendation and guidelines for public health. A variety of exercise modes with one or none motor requirements is available to start. When amount and intensity of exercise is increased the training effects can be found in most components of motor ability and physical fitness.

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Emily Lees, Wendell C. Taylor, Joseph T. Hepworth, Karina Feliz, Andrea Cassells and Jonathan N. Tobin

Despite the numerous benefits of physical activity, older adults continue to be more sedentary than their younger counterparts, and sedentary behavior is more prevalent among older racial and ethnic minorities than among Whites. This study used the nominal group technique (NGT) to examine participants’ perceptions of what neighborhood environmental changes would encourage greater physical activity for older African American and Hispanic women. Participants age 50–75 years were recruited from 2 urban community health clinics. Nine NGT sessions (45 participants) were conducted. The women were asked what changes in their neighborhood environment would encourage them to become more physically active. Responses to the research question were tabulated, and qualitative analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Major categories were physical environment changes, safety, and activities/social support. Although the physical environment received the greatest number of points, concerns for personal safety cut across categories. Participants indicated the need for more facilities in which to be active.

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Wendell C. Taylor, James F. Sallis, Emily Lees, Joseph T. Hepworth, Karina Feliz, Devin C. Volding, Andrea Cassels and Jonathan N. Tobin

Background:

Middle age and older (mean = 58.7 y), racial/ethnic minority women report low levels of physical activity. Recommendations to change the social and built environments to promote physical activity in this group are underdeveloped. Two research questions guided this study: What environmental changes are recommended by racial/ethnic minority women? What policies are related to the environmental changes?

Methods:

The findings from nine Nominal Group Technique sessions with 45 subjects were analyzed.

Results:

More police protection, cleaner streets, removal of drugs from streets, more street lights, walking groups, and free gyms were prioritized by subjects as the most important recommendations. The relevant policies included municipal, police department, sanitation department, public works, and transportation department.

Conclusions:

Racial/ethnic minority women living in low income, urban areas recommend improvements that affect overall quality of life. Meeting basic needs may be a prerequisite for use of physical activity resources.

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E. Michael Loovis and Vincent Melograno

Staff development is essential for physical educators who teach students with disabilities in the regular program. In the past, in-service providers were primarily concerned with assessment procedures, curriculum content, and teaching methodology. These same professionals failed to acknowledge the importance of various issues and concerns (e.g., school district policies, procedures, and practices) when planning and conducting staff development. Content covered in this paper includes (a) issues and concerns that affect what teachers learn in staff development programs, (b) use of established group process techniques (Nominal Group Technique and Interpretive Structural Modeling) to identify issues and concerns that influence teachers’ abilities to comply with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), and (c) differences between teachers’ and administrators’ perceptions concerning which issues and concerns are important.

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Yi-nam Suen, Ester Cerin and Sin-lung Wu

Background:

Regular participation in physical activity (PA) can help reduce the risk of overweight/obesity. Parental practices related to PA are modifiable determinants of preschoolers’ PA that are still not well understood, especially in non-Western cultures. This qualitative explorative study aimed to identify parental practices encouraging or discouraging PA in Hong Kong preschoolers.

Methods:

Nominal Group Technique (NGT) sessions (n = 45; 6 to 9/group), complemented by a focus group (n = 6) and individual interviews (n = 12), were conducted with primary caregivers (mainly parents) of Hong Kong preschoolers to investigate what parents do to encourage (4 groups) and discourage (2 groups) PA in children. The groups were stratified by low and high neighborhood socioeconomic status. Results: Participants generated 21 and 16 items describing practices encouraging and discouraging preschoolers’ PA, respectively. Parental provision of instrumental, motivational, and conditional support were thought to encourage child’s PA, while parental safety concerns, focus on academic achievement, lack of time and resources, and promotion of sedentary behaviors were thought to discourage child’s PA.

Conclusions:

Several parental practices that were deemed to encourage or discourage Hong Kong preschoolers’ PA were identified. These can assist with development of a culturally sensitive scale of PA parenting practices and inform future quantitative research.

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Bhibha M. Das and Steven J. Petruzzello

Background:

The physical inactivity epidemic continues be one of the greatest public health challenges in contemporary society in the United States. The transportation industry is at greater risk of physical inactivity, compared with individuals in other sectors of the workforce. The aim of this study was to use the Nominal Group Technique, a focus group technique, to examine mass transit employees’ perceptions of the barriers to physical activity at their worksite.

Methods:

Three focus groups (n = 31) were conducted to examine mass transit employees’ perceptions of barriers to physical activity at the worksite.

Results:

Salient barriers included (1) changing work schedules, (2) poor weather conditions, and (3) lack of scheduled and timely breaks.

Conclusions:

Findings were consistent with previous research demonstrating shift work, poor weather, and lack of breaks can negatively impact mass transit employees’ ability to be physically active. Although physical activity barriers for this population have been consistent for the last 20 years, public health practice and policy have not changed to address these barriers. Future studies should include conducing focus groups stratified by job classification (eg, operators, maintenance, and clerical) along with implementing and evaluating worksite-based physical activity interventions and policy changes.

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.1123/jpah.2012-0192 Expert Approaches to Promote Adolescent Physical Activity in Iran: Development of the Promoting Strategies Using the Nominal Group Technique Meeting Azam Baheiraei * Zeinab Hamzehgardeshi * Mohammad Reza Mohammadi * Eesa Mohammadi * AbouAli Vedadhir * 7 2014 11 11 5 5 961 961

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Richard J. Keegan, Lisa M. Barnett, Dean A. Dudley, Richard D. Telford, David R. Lubans, Anna S. Bryant, William M. Roberts, Philip J. Morgan, Natasha K. Schranz, Juanita R. Weissensteiner, Stewart A. Vella, Jo Salmon, Jenny Ziviani, Anthony D. Okely, Nalda Wainwright and John R. Evans

:10.1287/mnsc.9.3.458 10.1287/mnsc.9.3.458 Delbecq , A.L. , Van de Ven , A.H. , & Gustafson , D.H. ( 1975 ). Group techniques for program planning: A guide to nominal group and Delphi processes . Glenview, IL : Scott, Foresman & Company . Ding , D. , Lawson , K.D. , Kolbe-Alexander , T

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Andrea R. Taliaferro and Sean M. Bulger

planning: A guide to Nominal Group and Delphi processes . Glenview, IL : Scott Foresman and Company . Downs , P. , & Williams , T. ( 1994 ). Student attitudes toward integration of people with disabilities in activity settings: A European comparison . Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 11, 32