Depressive symptoms are common in older adults, but antidepressant medications may be contraindicated or poorly tolerated in this population. Intervention studies demonstrate that exercise may be an effective alternative. This meta-analysis included 41 randomized controlled trials of aerobic and nonaerobic exercise interventions investigating the effect of exercise on depressive symptoms in adults aged 60 or older. A random effects model demonstrated that exercise was associated with significantly lower depression severity (SMD = 0.57, 95% CI 0.36–0.78). This effect was not significantly different for different ages of participants, types of control groups, or types of exercise interventions. Studies requiring a diagnosis of depression had significantly greater mean effect sizes than studies that did not require a depression diagnosis (Qbet = 6.843, df = 1, p = .009). These findings suggest that exercise is an effective treatment option for older individuals with depressive symptoms.
Kathleen T. Rhyner and Amber Watts
Laura D. Ellingson, Paul R. Hibbing, Gregory J. Welk, Dana Dailey, Barbara A. Rakel, Leslie J. Crofford, Kathleen A. Sluka and Laura A. Frey-Law
are providing accurate information. This sample of middle-aged women with fibromyalgia included in the present study was recruited for a clinical trial to examine the effectiveness of a non-pharmacologic treatment for pain. Prior studies have shown that chronic pain patients are typically less
Dorianne Schuitema, Christian Greve, Klaas Postema, Rienk Dekker and Juha M. Hijmans
effectiveness of conservative, non-pharmacological treatment, of plantar heel pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis . Foot . 2017 ; 33 : 57 – 67 . doi:10.1016/j.foot.2017.05.004 10.1016/j.foot.2017.05.004 19. Higgins JPT , Altman DG , Sterne JAC . Chapter 8: Assessing risk of bias in included
Margo Mountjoy, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Louise Burke, Kathryn E. Ackerman, Cheri Blauwet, Naama Constantini, Constance Lebrun, Bronwen Lundy, Anna Melin, Nanna Meyer, Roberta Sherman, Adam S. Tenforde, Monica Klungland Torstveit and Richard Budgett
/day for children and adolescents ages 9–18 years ( US Department of Health and Human Services, 2015 ). Cognitive behavioral therapy is another non-pharmacological treatment for RED-S that has been shown to contribute to the resumption of menses in some women with FHA ( Berga & Loucks, 2006 ; Michopoulos