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Felipe Vogt Cureau, Paola Duarte, Daniela Lopes dos Santos, and Felipe Fossati Reichert

Background:

Few studies have investigated the prevalence and correlates of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases among Brazilian adolescents. We evaluated the clustering of risk factors and their associations with sociodemographic variables.

Methods:

We used a cross-sectional study carried out in 2011 comprising 1132 students aged 14–19 years from Santa Maria, Brazil. The cluster index was created as the sum of the risk factors. For the correlates analysis, a multinomial logistic regression was used. Furthermore, the observed/expected ratio was calculated.

Results:

Prevalence of individual risk factors studied was as follows: 85.8% unhealthy diets, 53.5% physical inactivity, 31.3% elevated blood pressure, 23.9% overweight, 22.3% excessive drinking alcohol, and 8.6% smoking. Only 2.8% of the adolescents did not present any risk factor, while 21.7%, 40.9%, 23.1%, and 11.5% presented 1, 2, 3, and 4 or more risk factors, respectively. The most prevalent combination was between unhealthy diets and physical inactivity (observed/expected ratio =1.32; 95% CI: 1.16–1.49). Clustering of risk factors was directly associated with age and inversely associated with socioeconomic status.

Conclusions:

Clustering of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases is high in Brazilian adolescents. Preventive strategies are more likely to be successful if focusing on multiple risk factors, instead of a single one.

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Leandro Fornias Machado de Rezende, Fabiana Maluf Rabacow, Juliana Yukari Kodaira Viscondi, Olinda do Carmo Luiz, Victor Keihan Rodrigues Matsudo, and I-Min Lee

Background:

In Brazil, one-fifth of the population reports not doing any physical activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), all-cause mortality and life expectancy in Brazil, by region and sociodemographic profile.

Methods:

We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for physical inactivity associated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, colon cancer, and all-cause mortality. To calculate the PAF, we used the physical inactivity prevalence from the 2008 Brazilian Household Survey and relative risk data in the literature.

Results:

In Brazil, physical inactivity is attributable to 3% to 5% of all major NCDs and 5.31% of all-cause mortality, ranging from 5.82% in the southeastern region to 2.83% in the southern region. Eliminating physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy by an average of 0.31 years. This reduction would affect mainly individuals with ≥ 15 years of schooling, male, Asian, elderly, residing in an urban area and earning ≥ 2 times the national minimum wage.

Conclusions:

In Brazil, physical inactivity has a major impact on NCDs and mortality, principally in the southeastern and central-west regions. Public policies and interventions promoting physical activity will significantly improve the health of the population.

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Marcel Ballin, Peter Nordström, and Anna Nordström

,901 inhabitants, of which 1,324 were aged 70 years. The HAI has been ongoing since it was initiated back in May 2012 and aims to identify traditional and novel risk factors for noncommunicable diseases, falls, and fractures among all 70-year-old individuals in Umeå. The eligibility criteria are being a resident

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Paddy C. Dempsey, Christine M. Friedenreich, Michael F. Leitzmann, Matthew P. Buman, Estelle Lambert, Juana Willumsen, and Fiona Bull

Chronic conditions—including noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, cancer, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and some communicable diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—are diseases of long duration, slow progression, and generally requiring ongoing

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Ítalo R. Lemes, Rômulo A. Fernandes, Bruna C. Turi-Lynch, Jamile S. Codogno, Luana C. de Morais, Kelly A.K. Koyama, and Henrique L. Monteiro

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of MetS worldwide is increasing. There is no study investigating the economic burden of MetS, especially in developing countries, on medication-related expenditure. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of medication-related expenditures with MetS and to explore how physical activity (PA) may influence this association. Methods: A total of 620 participants, 50 years or older, randomly selected in the city of Bauru, Brazil. Participants were followed from 2010 to 2014, and data on health care expenditure were collected annually. PA questionnaire was applied at baseline, 2 (2012), and 4 (2014) years later. Results: Mean age was 64.7 (95% confidence interval, 64.1–65.3). MetS was associated with higher medication expenditure related to diseases of the circulatory (P <.01) and endocrine (P <.01) systems. MetS explained 17.2% of medication-related expenditures, whereas PA slightly attenuated this association, explaining 1.1% of all health care costs. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that MetS has a significant burden on health care expenditures among adults, whereas PA seems to affect this phenomenon significantly, but in low magnitude.

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Kingsley K. Akinroye, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Oluwakemi O. Odukoya, Ade F. Adeniyi, Rufus A. Adedoyin, Olatunde S. Ojo, Damilola A. Alawode, Ebenezer A. Ozomata, and Taofeek O. Awotidebe

Background:

Physical activity (PA) promotion in children and youth is an impetus for prevention and control of NCD morbidity and mortality, but evidence is needed for effective interventions. The aim of the present paper is to summarize the results of the 2013 Nigerian Report Card on Physical Activity for children and youth.

Methods:

The Technical Report Committee conducted a comprehensive review of available literature in Nigeria. Grades were assigned to 10 PA indicators modeled after the Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) grading system.

Results:

Specific grades were assigned for several indicators: Overall Physical Activity Levels, C; Organized Sport and Physical Activity Participation, Incomplete; Active Play and Leisure, C-; Active Transportation, B; Sedentary Behaviors, F; Overweight and Obesity, B+. The following indicators were graded as INCOMPLETE: Physical Activity in School setting, Family and Peers, Community and Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments.

Conclusions:

PA levels of Nigerian children and youth are moderate while sedentary behaviors are high. The development of national guidelines for PA and sedentary behaviors can better inform policy and practice on healthy living among Nigerian children and youth.

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Alessandra Buja, Andrea Rabensteiner, Milena Sperotto, Giulia Grotto, Chiara Bertoncello, Silvia Cocchio, Tatjana Baldovin, Paolo Contu, Chiara Lorini, and Vincenzo Baldo

Worldwide, efforts to promote health and prevent disease have become more necessary than ever in order to address rising levels of noncommunicable diseases and related disabilities. 1 Health literacy (HL) seems to play a part in health promotion interventions, and its influence on actions to

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Hsin-Yen Yen and Hsuan Hsu

Older populations are vulnerable to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). An unhealthy lifestyle leads to increased risks of and mortality from NCDs ( World Health Organization, 2015 ). Older adults undergoing the aging process experience many physiological, structural, functional, and lifestyle changes

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Colin B. Shore, Gill Hubbard, Trish Gorely, Angus M. Hunter, and Stuart D.R. Galloway

Exercise referral schemes (ERS) are a popular primary care-based physical activity (PA) intervention aimed at tackling noncommunicable disease. 1 However, ERS are under scrutiny for overall effectiveness 1 , 2 due to a lack of evidence upon improvements in PA or reduction in incidences of

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Colin B. Shore, Gill Hubbard, Trish Gorely, Robert Polson, Angus Hunter, and Stuart D. Galloway

, the UK government has implemented population-wide programs. 6 In addition, at the individual level, tailored attempts to manage physical inactivity has led to the expansion of exercise referral schemes (ERS). An individual showing evidence of noncommunicable disease coupled with an inactive lifestyle