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Felipe Vogt Cureau, Paola Duarte, Daniela Lopes dos Santos and Felipe Fossati Reichert

Background:

Few studies have investigated the prevalence and correlates of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases among Brazilian adolescents. We evaluated the clustering of risk factors and their associations with sociodemographic variables.

Methods:

We used a cross-sectional study carried out in 2011 comprising 1132 students aged 14–19 years from Santa Maria, Brazil. The cluster index was created as the sum of the risk factors. For the correlates analysis, a multinomial logistic regression was used. Furthermore, the observed/expected ratio was calculated.

Results:

Prevalence of individual risk factors studied was as follows: 85.8% unhealthy diets, 53.5% physical inactivity, 31.3% elevated blood pressure, 23.9% overweight, 22.3% excessive drinking alcohol, and 8.6% smoking. Only 2.8% of the adolescents did not present any risk factor, while 21.7%, 40.9%, 23.1%, and 11.5% presented 1, 2, 3, and 4 or more risk factors, respectively. The most prevalent combination was between unhealthy diets and physical inactivity (observed/expected ratio =1.32; 95% CI: 1.16–1.49). Clustering of risk factors was directly associated with age and inversely associated with socioeconomic status.

Conclusions:

Clustering of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases is high in Brazilian adolescents. Preventive strategies are more likely to be successful if focusing on multiple risk factors, instead of a single one.

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Leandro Fornias Machado de Rezende, Fabiana Maluf Rabacow, Juliana Yukari Kodaira Viscondi, Olinda do Carmo Luiz, Victor Keihan Rodrigues Matsudo and I-Min Lee

Background:

In Brazil, one-fifth of the population reports not doing any physical activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), all-cause mortality and life expectancy in Brazil, by region and sociodemographic profile.

Methods:

We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for physical inactivity associated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, colon cancer, and all-cause mortality. To calculate the PAF, we used the physical inactivity prevalence from the 2008 Brazilian Household Survey and relative risk data in the literature.

Results:

In Brazil, physical inactivity is attributable to 3% to 5% of all major NCDs and 5.31% of all-cause mortality, ranging from 5.82% in the southeastern region to 2.83% in the southern region. Eliminating physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy by an average of 0.31 years. This reduction would affect mainly individuals with ≥ 15 years of schooling, male, Asian, elderly, residing in an urban area and earning ≥ 2 times the national minimum wage.

Conclusions:

In Brazil, physical inactivity has a major impact on NCDs and mortality, principally in the southeastern and central-west regions. Public policies and interventions promoting physical activity will significantly improve the health of the population.

Open access

Ade F. Adeniyi, Olukemi O. Odukoya, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Rufus A. Adedoyin, Olatunde S. Ojo, Edirin Metseagharun and Kingsley K. Akinroye

Background:

The Nigerian Report card on Physical Activity (PA) in Children and Youth was first developed in 2013 to inform practice and policy on healthy living and prevention of noncommunicable diseases among Nigerian children and youth. This article summarizes the results of the 2016 report card and provides updated evidence on the current situation in Nigeria.

Methods:

A comprehensive review of literature was undertaken by the Report Card Working Group. Grades were assigned to 10 PA indicators based on the criteria used for the 2013 edition.

Results:

Grades assigned to the indicators were Overall PA, D; Active Play and Leisure, C; Active Transportation, B; Sedentary Behaviors (screen-based, F and nonscreen-based, D); Overweight and Obesity, A; PA in Schools, C-; Government/Nongovernment Organizations/Private Sector/Policy, B. The following indicators were graded as Incomplete: Organized Sport and PA, Community and Built Environment, and Family and Peers.

Conclusions:

The overall PA levels of Nigerian children and youth seemed to be declining compared with the 2013 Report card but with slight improvement in active play and leisure, and PA in school settings. A substantial number of Nigerian children and youth still have high sedentary behaviors, overweight and obesity. Efforts are needed to promote PA among them.

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Chevelle M.A. Davis, Tetine L. Sentell, Juliana Fernandes de Souza Barbosa, Alban Ylli, Carmen-Lucia Curcio and Catherine M. Pirkle

older adults are attributed to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs; WHO, 2015b ). Older adults in MIC experience a greater burden of NCDs than those in high-income countries ( Hunter & Reddy, 2013 ; Miranda, Kinra, Casas, Davey Smith, & Ebrahim, 2008 ), which correlates with engagement in NCD behavioral

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Charbel El Bcheraoui, Marwa Tuffaha, Farah Daoud, Hannah Kravitz, Mohammad A. Al Mazroa, Mohammad Al Saeedi, Ziad A. Memish, Mohammed Basulaiman, Abdullah A. Al Rabeeah and Ali H. Mokdad

Background:

With the lack of appropriate data, we conducted a large household survey in 2013 to determine current rates of physical activity in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).

Methods:

The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. We used a multivariate logistic regression model to measure association between sociodemographic and selected characteristics and meeting the recommended levels of moderate and vigorous weekly physical activity.

Results:

Of a total of 12,000 households contacted, 10,735 (89.4%) participants completed Saudi Health Interview Survey. An estimated 4.5 million (34.5%) Saudis aged 15 years or older reported no weekly physical activity, while only 1.7 million (12.9%) meet the recommended levels of moderate physical activity (MPA). The likelihood of meeting MPA decreased with age, education, among women, those with a history of diagnosis of select chronic conditions, including diabetes. Similar results were found for the likelihood of meeting the recommended levels of vigorous weekly physical activity.

Conclusions:

We found very low levels of physical activity in KSA. Perhaps, KSA can challenge communities or employers to devise solutions and reward those with the best results. These solutions would be of great value to other Gulf countries, as well.

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Adilson Marques, Miguel Peralta, João Martins, Élvio R. Gouveia and Miguel G. Valeiro

Aim : To assess the relationship between low-to-moderate–intensity physical activity (LMPA) in 2011 and chronic diseases in 2011 and 2013 among older European adults. Methods : Participants (16,157 men and 21,260 women) from 13 European countries were interviewed about the presence of chronic conditions and LMPA. The association between LMPA and number of chronic diseases was assessed using logistic regression models. Results : Most of the older adults participated in LMPA more than once a week (81.9%), 8.4% participated once a week, and 9.3% did not participate. The prevalence of chronic diseases was significantly lower among those who reported engaging in LMPA. The LMPA in 2011 was related with lower odds of having several chronic diseases in 2013. Conclusion : Engaging in LMPA is associated with reduced risk for chronic diseases in older European men and women. Even the practice of LMPA once a week seems to be enough to diminish the risk of having chronic diseases.

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Colin B. Shore, Gill Hubbard, Trish Gorely, Robert Polson, Angus Hunter and Stuart D. Galloway

, the UK government has implemented population-wide programs. 6 In addition, at the individual level, tailored attempts to manage physical inactivity has led to the expansion of exercise referral schemes (ERS). An individual showing evidence of noncommunicable disease coupled with an inactive lifestyle

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Kristen Day

Noncommunicable (or chronic) diseases—cancer, heart disease, stroke, and diabetes—are often considered the problems of wealthy, developed countries. Yet, the rates of noncommunicable diseases in developing countries are increasing dramatically. In total, 80% of deaths from noncommunicable diseases

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Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Greet Cardon, Chen-Kang Chang, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Lowri Edwards, Arunas Emeljanovas, Aleš Gába, Wendy Y. Huang, Izzeldin A.E. Ibrahim, Jaak Jürimäe, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Agata Korcz, Yeon Soo Kim, Eun-Young Lee, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, John J. Reilly, Blanca Roman-Viñas, Natasha Schranz, John Scriven, Jan Seghers, Thomas Skovgaard, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gregor Starc, Gareth Stratton, Tim Takken, Tuija Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, David Thivel, Richard Tyler, Alun Williams, Stephen H.S. Wong, Paweł Zembura and Mark S. Tremblay

a more active lifestyle happens soon, a high rate of premature noncommunicable diseases can be anticipated when this generation of children will reach adulthood. Organized Sport and Physical Activity Most of the countries assigned a letter grade to Organized Sport and Physical Activity, excepting

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Silvia A. González, Olga L. Sarmiento, Daniel D. Cohen, Diana M. Camargo, Jorge E. Correa, Diana C. Páez and Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

Background:

Physical activity (PA) is central to the global agenda for the prevention on noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Although 80% of NCDs occur in low-to-middle-income countries, the evidence on PA comes mainly from high-income countries. In this context, the report card for Colombia is an advocacy tool to help in the translation of evidence into concrete actions. The aims of this paper were two-fold: to present the methodology used to develop the first Report Card on Physical Activity in Colombian Children and Youth and to summarize the results.

Methods:

Twelve indicators of PA were graded using numerical grades (5, highest, to 1, lowest) based on data from national surveys and policy documents.

Results:

National policy and obesity indicators were graded “4,” while departmental policy and overweight indicators were graded “3.” Overall PA levels, sports participation, sedentary behaviors and nongovernment initiatives were graded “2,” and school influence was graded “1.” Active transportation, active play, low cardiorespiratory fitness, and family and community influence received an incomplete.

Conclusion:

PA levels are low and sedentary behaviors are high in Colombian children and youth. Although the prevalence of obesity in Colombia is lower compared with other Latin American countries, it is increasing. A rich legal framework and availability of institutional arrangements provide unique opportunities to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice that need to be evaluated.