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Nick Takos, Duncan Murray and Ian O’Boyle

nonprofit sport organization boards. Avolio ( 2013 ) described the recent exponential growth in AL work almost in the same way researchers previously explored transformational and charismatic leadership, with over 800 studies launched in the past decade ( Avolio, 2013 ). Despite this assertion, a majority

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Ian O’Boyle, David Shilbury and Lesley Ferkins

With an increase in public attention being placed on the issue of leadership in sport, and in particular the sport governance setting, this article argues that there is a need to establish, as an initial step, a working model for leadership in the nonprofit sport governance setting. Leadership

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Shannon Hamm-Kerwin and Alison Doherty

Conflict can significantly influence the performance of a group and the attitudes of their members. As with any organizational group, conflict is expected within the boards of nonprofit organizations. The purpose of this paper was to examine the nature of intragroup conflict in nonprofit sport boards, and its impact on perceived decision quality, board member satisfaction, and commitment to the board. Seventy-four provincial sport organization board members were surveyed. The results indicated that task, relationship, and process conflict were negatively related to decision quality, satisfaction, and commitment, and relationship conflict was the most influential variable on all three outcomes. The mediating effect of relationship conflict on the conflict to outcomes associations was also uncovered. The findings have implications for the management of relationship conflict in this context, as well as the management of task and process conflict which may trigger relationship conflict. Several areas for future research are presented.

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Lucie Thibault, Trevor Slack and Bob Hinings

In order to anticipate changes and challenges in their environments, sport organizations must formulate strategies. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for the study of strategy formulation in nonprofit sport organizations. Based predominantly on MacMillan's (1983) work on the nonprofit sector, and using Canadian national sport organizations as an illustration, this study identified several strategic imperatives to uncover the types of strategies that could be undertaken by nonprofit sport organizations. The imperatives were grouped into two dimensions; program attractiveness and competitive position. Under program attractiveness, the following imperatives were considered: “fundability,” size of client base, volunteer appeal, and support group appeal. The dimension of competitive position included the imperatives of equipment costs and affiliation fees. The two dimensions were juxtaposed on a matrix to produce four strategic types: enhancers, innovators, refiners, and explorers. The characteristics of these types and their implications for nonprofit sport organizations are discussed.

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Shannon Kerwin, Joanne MacLean and Dina Bell-Laroche

The theory of practicing values may provide valuable insight into the role of organizational values in sport organizations. This is particularly relevant in the nonprofit sport sector where managers operate with limited budgets and organizations may subscribe to specific ethical-social values related to organizational performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of organizational values on the performance of nonprofit sport organizations and the possible mediating effect of employing a management-by-values approach. Online questionnaires were collected from 24 national sport organizations, with a total sample of 103 participants. Results indicate management by values fully mediates the influence of ethical-social organizational values on organizational performance. These results are explained using the theory of practicing values, which emphasizes the need to intentionally manage values within sport organizations. Implications for research and practice are presented.

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Russell Hoye and Alison Doherty

Given the growing body of research pertaining to nonprofit sport board performance, it is timely to review the focus and findings of this body of work, and to identify what might be priorities for further investigation. An integrated model of board performance that provides a framework for this review, and for the further discussion of current findings, gaps, and areas for future research, is presented. Relatively few studies have examined nonprofit sport board performance directly, with the majority of research focused on individual and group level board processes. The impact of environmental, organizational, or individual factors on board structure or processes, or on board performance, has received limited attention. Research questions that identify gaps in the literature and thus may guide future efforts are presented.

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Trevor Slack and Bob Hinings

Edited by Lucie Thibault

While it is one of the central topics in the study of organizations, the concept of strategy has received little attention in the sport management literature. This paper is, in part, designed to help fill some of this void. Specifically, the purpose of the paper is to empirically verify a framework proposed by Thibault, Slack, and Hinings (1993) for the analysis of strategy in nonprofit sport organizations and to locate a sample of national level sport organizations within this framework according to their strategic type. The results of the study support the existence and utility of the two dimensions identified in Thibault et al.'s framework. They also reveal that there are common characteristics within the organizations that constitute each of the framework's four strategic types. The identification of these characteristics provides us with a preliminary understanding of the strategic initiatives being pursued by those sport organizations.

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Lauren Burch, Chrysostomos Giannoulakis and Shea Brgoch

This case study examines USA Wrestling’s (USAW) social media use during the 2014 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Wrestling Championships. During the three days of the event, a cross-platform content analysis of USAW’s Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Instagram accounts formed the foundation of the case analysis. In addition, real-life qualitative interviews were conducted with employees involved with the national governing body’s (NGB) social media implementation plan. Students will be asked to develop social media-based messaging to reach and engage the NGB’s potential stakeholders, based on USAW’s communication strategy outcomes during the NCAA championships. The case provides students with the opportunity to: (a) analyze nonprofit sport organizations, (b) investigate how communication and marketing efforts differ in a not-for-profit environment, and (c) identify to what extent social media sites provide a cost-effective option to entities of similar status. To further support the pivotal role of social media within a sport organization’s overall marketing and communication mix, managerial implications pertaining to stakeholder identification and engagement strategies are included in the analysis.

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Alison Doherty and Graham Cuskelly

. The three performance indicators are also consistent with Daniel and Moulton’s ( 2017 ) call for the consideration of operational efficiency, program quality, and external orientation in the assessment of nonprofit sport organization performance. It was of interest in the current study to examine the

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Kathy Babiak

Interorganizational relationships have become increasingly important for sport organizations. The purpose of this study was to explore the determinants and conditions of partnership formation in a group of collaborating nonprofit, public, and private organizations. A conceptual framework that includes the determinants of legitimacy, stability, necessity, asymmetry, reciprocity, and efficiency were used. Conditions including interdependence and presence of an interpersonal network were also explored. This research employed qualitative methods to examine partners’ reasons for developing interorganizational relationships in a sport context. For the collaborating organizations, the determinants of legitimacy, stability, reciprocity, and efficiency prevailed as important motives for relationship formation. These findings help to refine and apply contemporary theory to sport management and can be used to help manage interorganizational relationships.