The theory of practicing values may provide valuable insight into the role of organizational values in sport organizations. This is particularly relevant in the nonprofit sport sector where managers operate with limited budgets and organizations may subscribe to specific ethical-social values related to organizational performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of organizational values on the performance of nonprofit sport organizations and the possible mediating effect of employing a management-by-values approach. Online questionnaires were collected from 24 national sport organizations, with a total sample of 103 participants. Results indicate management by values fully mediates the influence of ethical-social organizational values on organizational performance. These results are explained using the theory of practicing values, which emphasizes the need to intentionally manage values within sport organizations. Implications for research and practice are presented.
Shannon Kerwin, Joanne MacLean and Dina Bell-Laroche
Nick Takos, Duncan Murray and Ian O’Boyle
nonprofit sport organization boards. Avolio ( 2013 ) described the recent exponential growth in AL work almost in the same way researchers previously explored transformational and charismatic leadership, with over 800 studies launched in the past decade ( Avolio, 2013 ). Despite this assertion, a majority
Ian O’Boyle, David Shilbury and Lesley Ferkins
With an increase in public attention being placed on the issue of leadership in sport, and in particular the sport governance setting, this article argues that there is a need to establish, as an initial step, a working model for leadership in the nonprofit sport governance setting. Leadership
Shannon Hamm-Kerwin and Alison Doherty
Conflict can significantly influence the performance of a group and the attitudes of their members. As with any organizational group, conflict is expected within the boards of nonprofit organizations. The purpose of this paper was to examine the nature of intragroup conflict in nonprofit sport boards, and its impact on perceived decision quality, board member satisfaction, and commitment to the board. Seventy-four provincial sport organization board members were surveyed. The results indicated that task, relationship, and process conflict were negatively related to decision quality, satisfaction, and commitment, and relationship conflict was the most influential variable on all three outcomes. The mediating effect of relationship conflict on the conflict to outcomes associations was also uncovered. The findings have implications for the management of relationship conflict in this context, as well as the management of task and process conflict which may trigger relationship conflict. Several areas for future research are presented.
Patti Millar and Alison Doherty
Organizational capacity is the assets and resources an organization draws on to achieve its goals ( Hall et al., 2003 ). It has been the focus of increasing attention in the nonprofit sector and community sport context in particular, as scholars endeavor to understand the critical dimensions of
Katie Misener and Alison Doherty
As a pivotal part of the nonprofit and voluntary sector, community sport organizations provide opportunities for active participation, social engagement, and community cohesion. This study examined the nature and impact of organizational capacity in one nonprofit community sport club to identify factors that affect the ability of this organization to fulfill its mandate and provide sport opportunities in the community. Hall et al.’s (2003) multidimensional framework of human resources, financial, relationships/ networks, infrastructure and process, and planning and development capacity was used. The study incorporated interviews with board members and coaches as well as active-member researcher observations (Adler & Adler, 1987). Key strengths and challenges of each capacity dimension were uncovered, and connections among the dimensions were revealed. The relatively greater importance of human resources and planning and development capacity for goal achievement was identified. The findings support the use of a multidimensional approach for generating a comprehensive understanding of organizational capacity in community sport, and for identifying where and how capacity may be enhanced.
Lucie Thibault, Trevor Slack and Bob Hinings
In order to anticipate changes and challenges in their environments, sport organizations must formulate strategies. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for the study of strategy formulation in nonprofit sport organizations. Based predominantly on MacMillan's (1983) work on the nonprofit sector, and using Canadian national sport organizations as an illustration, this study identified several strategic imperatives to uncover the types of strategies that could be undertaken by nonprofit sport organizations. The imperatives were grouped into two dimensions; program attractiveness and competitive position. Under program attractiveness, the following imperatives were considered: “fundability,” size of client base, volunteer appeal, and support group appeal. The dimension of competitive position included the imperatives of equipment costs and affiliation fees. The two dimensions were juxtaposed on a matrix to produce four strategic types: enhancers, innovators, refiners, and explorers. The characteristics of these types and their implications for nonprofit sport organizations are discussed.
Gareth J. Jones, Mike Edwards, Jason N. Bocarro, Kyle S. Bunds and Jordan W. Smith
Interorganizational partnerships have been used by nonprofits in a variety of industries to build organizational capacity, yet they are currently underutilized by many youth sport nonprofit organizations. While previous research has highlighted key features of dyadic relationships that inhibit the development and maintenance of partnerships, there has been less attention to the influence of broader or complete networks. This study examined key structural properties of a youth sport nonprofit network in one municipality to determine how interorganizational partnerships were used to build organizational capacity. Whole network analysis was used to study partnerships between youth sport nonprofits and analyze the configuration and structural features of the network. Results indicated a fragmented network of youth sport nonprofit organizations, with the majority of organizations operating independently of one another, and the network itself characterized by unbalanced ties. The discussion highlights how this network structure influences organizational action and contributes to relational issues often observed at the dyadic level. The introduction of a third-party brokerage organization is discussed as a potentially useful strategy for improving this network structure.
Russell Hoye and Alison Doherty
Given the growing body of research pertaining to nonprofit sport board performance, it is timely to review the focus and findings of this body of work, and to identify what might be priorities for further investigation. An integrated model of board performance that provides a framework for this review, and for the further discussion of current findings, gaps, and areas for future research, is presented. Relatively few studies have examined nonprofit sport board performance directly, with the majority of research focused on individual and group level board processes. The impact of environmental, organizational, or individual factors on board structure or processes, or on board performance, has received limited attention. Research questions that identify gaps in the literature and thus may guide future efforts are presented.
Colleen M. Doyle
Many Americans do not meet current minimum physical activity recommendations. Although the choice to be physically active is made by individuals, that choice is affected by the social and physical environments in which people live, work, play and learn. Creating environments that are more supportive of physical activity will require policies, practices and programs that individuals may not be able to influence on their own; such changes will require comprehensive, coordinated and collaborative action by a variety of organizational sectors at national, state and local levels. Because of their core—and frequently unique—competencies, many non-profit organizations are poised to be active players in promoting important changes in policy and community environments that can facilitate lifelong physical activity for all Americans.
Review of mission statements and strategic plans of a variety of non-profit organizations reveal key characteristics and competencies that can be leveraged, frequently across multiple levels and sectors, to promote physical activity.
Nonprofit organizations should leverage their unique capabilities, particularly in the areas of advocacy, strategic collaborations and outreach to their membership, volunteer and/or constituent bases to promote policy and environmental changes in support of physical activity.