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Marlene A. Dixon, B. Christine Green, Arden Anderson, and Peter Evans

in their sport for many years already. This unintentionally created demand for additional, perhaps nontraditional, sport opportunities for girls who had not been part of the system. The flag football programs examined here are recent entrants into their competitive environments. This, combined with

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Choong Hoon Lim, Tywan G. Martin, and Dae Hee Kwak

The current study employs the hedonic paradigm model (Hirschman & Holbrook, 1982) to investigate the interceding function of emotions on the relationship between personality (i.e., risk taking) and attitude toward mixed martial arts. This study also examines sport-media (e.g., television) consumption of a nontraditional sport. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the proposed model incorporating risk taking, pleasure, arousal, attitude, and actual consumption behavior. The study found a significant mediation effect of emotion (pleasure and arousal) in the relationship between risk taking and attitude. In addition, attitude showed a direct and significant influence on actual media-consumption behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed, along with future directions for research.

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Brianna Newland, Marlene A. Dixon, and B. Christine Green


The purpose of this study was to provide recommendations to an organization trying to effectively implement nontraditional sport programming to reach a broader range of children and engage them in physical activity.


This consultation-based qualitative study used data collected from 7 after-school sport program sites. Data were collected through participant observation and semistructured interviews with program instructors. The data were analyzed in 2 steps. First, descriptive coding was used to group observations and responses from each question, then pattern coding was used to find emerging themes. Researchers then compared both within and across program sites.


Researchers found that enjoyment, ability, and language influenced interactions; age-appropriateness, engagement, and curriculum design impacted curriculum; and instructor roles and ongoing mentoring impacted effectiveness of training/support. A fundamental disconnect was evident between the program vision and the instructors’ interpretation (and therefore, implementation) of the vision.


Recommendations offered for practice include continued focus on curriculum design that can engage children at each level of development (grades K–5) and increased training and field support for instructors to ensure intended implementation of the programming.

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Kerri Bodin, Georgia Teare, Jordan T. Bakhsh, and Marijke Taks

Canadian sport market, the novelty of the participation experience was also a promising means of satisfying the participation preference for nontraditional sport. After gathering data on baseball and sport participation in the country and developing a plan for introducing Baseball5 ™ to Canadian

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Beth A. Cianfrone, Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove, and Alyssa L. Tavormina

. Overall, the findings revealed there is a wide and diverse market for daily deals in sport, including both traditional and nontraditional sport types and levels. As such, it appears that many organizations are willing to risk a negative perception about a “discounted” brand through this type of

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Leah K. May, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, and Stefanie A. Wind

-oriented recruits are more likely to be female, to have played a relatively low level of nontraditional sport, and to have attended schools in which curricular physical education was well-taught and given priority over extracurricular sport ( Curtner-Smith, 2017 ). Those PTs with coaching orientations are more