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Coding Body Language in Sports: The Nonverbal Behavior Coding System for Soccer Penalties

Philip Furley and Alexander Roth

Advancement of knowledge often goes hand in hand with methodological development. In the field of nonverbal behavior (NVB)/nonverbal communication, an important methodological milestone was the development of the Facial Action Coding System ( Ekman & Friesen 1976 , 1978 ; Ekman et al., 1971

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Can You Tell Who Scores? An Assessment of the Recognition of Affective States Based on the Nonverbal Behavior of Amateur Tennis Players in Competitive Matches

Julian Fritsch, Kirstin Seiler, Matthias Wagner, Chris Englert, and Darko Jekauc

state ( Jekauc et al., 2021 ), examining these reactions can yield important insights into the psychological challenges athletes face during a competition. In sport psychology, where these behavioral expressions are usually subsumed under the term nonverbal behavior , two broad research perspectives

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“I’m Pretty Sure That We Will Win!”: The Influence of Score-Related Nonverbal Behavioral Changes on the Confidence in Winning a Basketball Game

Philip Furley and Geoffrey Schweizer

The goal of the present research was to test whether score-related changes in opponents’ nonverbal behavior influence athletes’ confidence in beating their opponents. In an experiment, 40 participants who were experienced basketball players watched brief video clips depicting athletes’ nonverbal behavior. Video clips were not artificially created, but showed naturally occurring behavior. Participants indicated how confident they were in beating the presented athletes in a hypothetical scenario. Results indicated that participants’ confidence estimations were influenced by opponents’ score-related nonverbal behavior. Participants were less confident about beating a leading team and more confident about beating a trailing team, although they were unaware of the actual score during the depicted scenes. The present research is the first to show that in-game variations of naturally occurring nonverbal behavior can influence athletes’ confidence. This finding highlights the importance of research into nonverbal behavior in sports, particularly in relation to athletes’ confidence.

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Nonverbal Behavior in Soccer: The Influence of Dominant and Submissive Body Language on the Impression Formation and Expectancy of Success of Soccer Players

Philip Furley, Matt Dicks, and Daniel Memmert

In the present article, we investigate the effects of specific nonverbal behaviors signaling dominance and submissiveness on impression formation and outcome expectation in the soccer penalty kick situation. In Experiment 1, results indicated that penalty takers with dominant body language are perceived more positively by soccer goalkeepers and players and are expected to perform better than players with a submissive body language. This effect was similar for both video and point-light displays. Moreover, in contrast to previous studies, we found no effect of clothing (red vs. white) in the video condition. In Experiment 2, we used the implicit association test to demonstrate that dominant body language is implicitly associated with a positive soccer player schema whereas submissive body language is implicitly associated with a negative soccer player schema. The implications of our findings are discussed with reference to future implications for theory and research in the study of person perception in sport.

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Claims in Surfing: The Influence of Emotional Postperformance Expressions on Performance Evaluations

Philip Furley, Fanny Thrien, Johannes Klinge, and Jannik Dörr

illustrates the topic of this study: Do claims (postperformance nonverbal emotional expressions) influence people in scoring waves during surf contests? Or, stated more generally, does individual postperformance nonverbal behavior influence observers’ evaluation of the performance? Several relevant lines of

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Gender- and Age-Group Differences in the Effect of Perceived Nonverbal Communication on Communication Ability and Coaching Evaluation in Japanese Student Athletes

Takashi Shimazaki, Hiroaki Taniguchi, and Masao Kikkawa

individual nonverbal behaviors ( Dael et al., 2012 ; Harrigan, 2013 ), the methodological report of Friedman et al. ( 1980 ) indicated difficulty in assessing expressed NC and its role in human relationships. In the research on communication in sports, several studies have been conducted on the significance

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The Relationship between Observable Self-Talk and Competitive Junior Tennis Players' Match Performances

Judy L. Van Raalte, Britten W. Brewer, Patricia M. Rivera, and Albert J. Petitpas

In sport psychology, there is broad interest in cognitive factors that affect sport performance. The purpose of this research was to examine one such factor, self-talk, in competitive sport performance. Twenty-four junior tennis players were observed during tournament matches. Their observable self-talk, gestures, and match scores were recorded. Players also described their positive, negative, and other thoughts on a postmatch questionnaire. A descriptive analysis of the self-talk and gestures that occurred during competition was generated. It was found that negative self-talk was associated with losing and that players who reported believing in the utility of self-talk won more points than players who did not. These results suggest that self-talk influences competitive sport outcomes. The importance of "believing" in self-talk and the potential motivational and detrimental effects of negative self-talk on performance are discussed.

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Indications of Referee Bias in Division I Women’s College Volleyball: Testing Expectancy Violations and Examining Nonverbal Communication

Andrew Dix

-field transgression. Other academics such as MacMahon et al. ( 2014 ) have called for more research on the decision making of officials because of their ability to influence the outcome of a game. In conjunction, the intersection where nonverbal behaviors like BHEs and referee decision making intersect appears ripe

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Coaching Behaviors as Sources of Relation-Inferred Self-Efficacy (RISE) in American Male High School Athletes

Brock McMullen, Hester L. Henderson, Donna Harp Ziegenfuss, and Maria Newton

theorizing that through verbal and nonverbal behaviors, coaches contribute to the development of an athlete’s RISE beliefs and that RISE may be an additional source of self-efficacy. In sum, the aforementioned research has demonstrated evidence for the existence of RISE or relational efficacy perceptions in

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Nonverbal Communication of Confidence in Soccer Referees: An Experimental Test of Darwin’s Leakage Hypothesis

Philip Furley and Geoffrey Schweizer

The goal of the present paper was to investigate whether soccer referees’ nonverbal behavior (NVB) differed based on the difficulty of their decisions and whether perceivers could detect these systematic variations. On the one hand, communicating confidence via NVB is emphasized in referee training. On the other hand, it seems feasible from a theoretical point of view that particularly following relatively difficult decisions referees have problems controlling their NVB. We conducted three experiments to investigate this question. Experiment 1 (N = 40) and Experiment 2 (N = 60) provided evidence that perceivers regard referees’ NVB as less confident following ambiguous decisions as compared with following unambiguous decisions. Experiment 3 (N = 58) suggested that perceivers were more likely to debate with the referee when referees nonverbally communicated less confidence. We discuss consequences for referee training.