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William J. Morgan

unambiguous aim. The issue in this instance is not just that each side considered its take on sport to be superior to the other’s, but that each considered its rival’s take on how one should comport oneself in sport as thoroughly reprehensible and corrupt. There are three normative theories in the philosophy

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B. Christine Green

Sport development has become a leading issue for sport policymakers and sport managers worldwide. Sport development systems have two main objectives: to increase the number of participants actively engaged in sport and to enhance the quality of performances in sport. This is the foundation of the much used, but rarely examined, pyramid analogy in sport development. In this article, the pyramid model of sport development is explored, and its underlying assumptions are critiqued. Three tasks necessary for an effective pyramid model are identified: athlete recruitment, athlete retention, and athlete transitions. Recruitment requires the assistance of significant others, as well as the proliferation of many smaller, local-level sport programs. Retention requires a focus on motivation, socialization, and commitment. Advancement requires that programs be linked vertically and that athletes be aided in processes of locating and socializing into new levels of involvement. Although specific strategies for enhancing recruitment, retention, and transition of athletes can be identified from the literature, further research is needed.

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Marlene A. Dixon, B. Christine Green, Arden Anderson, and Peter Evans

organizations relative to their environments and with an eye toward the fundamental tasks of sport development ( Green, 2005 ) pathways toward building new sport opportunities. Sport Development Approaches Green’s normative theory of sport development ( 2005 ) offers a framework for examining the core tasks of

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R. Scott Kretchmar and Cesar R. Torres

.1080/00948705.1987.9714449 10.1080/00948705.1987.9714449 Loland , S. ( 2004 ). Normative theories of sport: A critical review . Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 31 ( 2 ), 111 – 121 . https://doi.org/10.1080/00948705.2004.9714655 10.1080/00948705.2004.9714655 Lopez Frias , F.J. ( 2014 ). William J. Morgan

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Jacqueline Martins Patatas, Jens De Rycke, Veerle De Bosscher, and Rafael Lima Kons

bifida . Rehabilitation Psychology, 54 ( 1 ), 16 – 27 . PubMed ID: 19618699 10.1037/a0014279 Green , B.C. ( 2005 ). Building sport programs to optimize athlete recruitment, retention and transition: Toward a normative theory of sport development . Journal of Sport Management, 19, 233 – 253

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Lynn L. Ridinger, Kyungun R. Kim, Stacy Warner, and Jacob K. Tingle

Behavior, 12 ( 2 ), 93 – 102 . Green , B.C. ( 2005 ). Building sport programs to optimize athlete recruitment, retention, and transition: Toward a normative theory of sport development . Journal of Sport Management, 19 , 233 – 253 . doi:10.1123/jsm.19.3.233 10.1123/jsm.19.3.233 Griffeth , R

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Alison Doherty and Graham Cuskelly

optimize athlete recruitment, retention, and transition: Toward a normative theory of sport development . Journal of Sport Management, 19 ( 3 ), 233 – 253 . doi:10.1123/jsm.19.3.233 10.1123/jsm.19.3.233 Gumulka , G. , Barr , C. , Lasby , D. , & Brownlee , B. ( 2005 ). Understanding the

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Travis R. Bell

influenza cases, hospitalizations and deaths in the United States . https://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/estimates_2009_h1n1.htm Christians , C.G. , Glasser , T. , McQuail , D. , Nordenstreng , K. , & White , R.A. ( 2009 ). Normative theories of the media: Journalism in democratic societies . University

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Brendan O’Hallarn, Stephen L. Shapiro, Marion E. Hambrick, D.E. Wittkower, Lynn Ridinger, and Craig A. Morehead

. ( 2006 ). Political communication in media society: Does democracy still enjoy an epistemic dimension? The impact of normative theory on empirical research . Communication Theory, 16 ( 4 ), 411 – 426 . doi:10.1111/j.1468-2885.2006.00280.x 10.1111/j.1468-2885.2006.00280.x Hambrick , M.E. , Simmons

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Fei Gao, Bob Heere, Samuel Y. Todd, and Brian Mihalik

multiparty problems . San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass Inc . Green , B.C. ( 2005 ). Building sport programs to optimize athlete recruitment, retention, and transition: Toward a normative theory of sport development . Journal of Sport Management, 19 ( 3 ), 233 – 253 . doi:10.1123/jsm.19.3.233 10