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Mieko Yokozuka, Chie Miki, Makoto Suzuki and Rieko Katsura

number of steps/day and lower limb muscular strength is different for each muscle ( Bassey, Bendall, & Pearson, 1988 ; Nagayama et al., 2008 ; Scott, Blizzard, Fell, & Jones, 2009 ). Although toe flexor strength may be related to standing and walking activities, the relationship is not yet clear. The

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Travis Saunders, Nerissa Campbell, Timothy Jason, Gail Dechman, Paul Hernandez, Kara Thompson and Chris M. Blanchard


Although individual studies have reported on the number of steps/day taken by individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), this evidence has not been systematically reviewed or synthesized.


MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for studies reporting objectively-measured steps/day and percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) in patients with COPD. Meta-analyses were used to estimate steps/day across studies, while metaregression was used to estimate between-study variance based on clinical and demographic factors (year and location of study, activity monitor brand, number of days wearing the monitor, whether participants were about to enter pulmonary rehabilitation, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), FEV1%, age, and sex).


38 studies including 2621 participants met inclusion criteria. The pooled mean estimate was 4579 steps/day (95% CI:4310 to 5208) for individuals with COPD. Only 6MWD, FEV1% and whether patients were about to undergo pulmonary rehabilitation explained a significant portion of the variance (P < 0.1) in univariate meta-regression. In a multivariate model including the above risk factors, only FEV1% was associated with steps/day after adjustment for other covariates.


These results indicate that patients with COPD achieve extremely low levels of physical activity as assessed by steps/day, and that severity of airflow obstruction is associated with activity level.

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Nicolas Farina and Ruth G. Lowry

) compared to the number of steps/day for each device. Bonferroni-Holm correction for multiple tests ( Holm, 1979 ) was performed and only corrected P values less than .05 were considered to be significant. Data was analysed using SPSS V.23 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, New York, USA). Results A total of 25

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Denise M. Jones, Harvi F. Hart, Kay M. Crossley, Ilana N. Ackerman and Joanne L. Kemp

) 448 1544–25,012 9552 (5032) 206 1748–22,443 9957 (4899) 242 1544–25,012 Note . M  = mean number of steps/day; SD  = ± standard deviation; n  = number of days. *Using highest score from either Fitbit ™ device. Independent sample t -tests for each device demonstrated no significant difference

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Juliana S. Oliveira, Leanne Hassett, Catherine Sherrington, Elisabeth Ramsay, Catherine Kirkham, Shona Manning and Anne Tiedemann

use of a waist-worn accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL) and was expressed as mean activity counts/min/day and mean number of steps/day. Goal Setting Participants nominated two function-related goals that met the S.M.A.R.T criteria. Goals were determined in a collaborative manner by the

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María Hernández, Fabrício Zambom-Ferraresi, Pilar Cebollero, Javier Hueto, José Antonio Cascante and María M. Antón

performing light-intensity activities and sedentary time; (2) the muscle power of the quadriceps femoris is positively associated with both functional capacity and light-intensity physical activity, but no such associations were observed regarding the maximum strength of the quadriceps; and (3) the number of

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Nadja Schott and Maike Tietjens

.51 ** – –  total 3.50 ± 0.89 4.03 ± 0.85 4.38 ± 0.45 4.40 ± 0.46 ** – – Falls ( n ) 4.17 ± 3.93 2.28 ± 1.84 0.00 ± 0.00 0.00 ± 0.00 ** * * Physical activity  number of steps/day 584 ± 522 1245 ± 809 1562 ± 582 1623 ± 731 ** * ***  percentile a 16.2 ± 12.7 34.2 ± 20.6 28.7 ± 14.3 38.5 ± 22.2 *** ** – Note . ABC

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Suguru Ando, Yumi Higuchi, Tomomi Kitagawa, Tatsunori Murakami and Emiko Todo

increased the number of steps by 24.1%, from 3,542 to 4,387 steps/day ( Sarkisian et al., 2007 ). Most previous studies that found an increase in the number of steps involved older adults living in the community, and their average number of steps/day was usually over 3,000. However, the participants in our

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Steriani Elavsky, Lenka Knapova, Adam Klocek and David Smahel

.09 ± 0.41; p  < .001. Significantly higher number of steps/day in intervention condition (12,076 ± 1,934) compared with control (5,712 ± 1,335), mean difference: 6,363 ± 1,953; p  < .001. Significantly lower sitting time in intervention condition (9.55 ± 1.80) compared with control (11.40 ± 1.48), mean