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Fiona E. Pelly and Sarah J. Burkhart

The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary regimens reported by athletes competing at a major international competition and report whether these were based on nutrient composition, religious beliefs, cultural eating style, food intolerance or avoidance of certain ingredients. A questionnaire was randomly distributed to 351 athletes in the main dining hall of the athletes’ village over the three main meal periods during the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games (23rd Sept—14th Oct, 2010). The majority (n = 218, 62%) of athletes reported following one or more dietary regimens, with 50% (n = 174) following a diet based on the nutrient composition of the food. Significantly more athletes from weight category and aesthetic sports (28%, p = .005) and from power/sprint sports (41%, p = .004) followed low fat and high protein regimens respectively. Other specialized dietary regimens were followed by 33% of participants, with avoidance of red meat (13%), vegetarian (7%), Halal (6%), and low lactose regimens (5%) reported most frequently. Significantly more athletes from non-Western regions followed a vegetarian diet (p < .001), while more vegetarians reported avoiding additives (p = .013) and wheat (p ≤ .001). A Western style of eating was the most commonly reported cultural regimen (72% of total with 23% from non-Western regions). Those following a Western diet were significantly more likely to report following a regimen based on nutrient composition (p = .02). As a high proportion of athletes from differing countries and sports follow specialized dietary regimens, caterers and organizers should ensure that adequate nutrition support and food items are available at similar events.

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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke

reliability at all stages, including the dietary recall and food recording by athletes, coding of data by dietitians, estimation of nutrient composition using nutrient food tables and dietary software programs, and expression of data relative to reference standards (i.e., eating guidance systems and DRIs

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Paula J. Ziegler, Judith A. Nelson, Chloe Tay, Barbara Bruemmer and Adam Drewnowski

Dietary energy density (kcal/g) is defined as available dietary energy per unit weight or volume of food. The consumption of energy-dense foods has been associated with increased obesity risk and with excessive weight gain. The objectives of this study were to compare how dietary energy density, calculated using three different methods relates to food choices and nutrient composition of the diets of elite figure skaters. Participants were 159 elite figure skaters attending training camps. Mean age was 18.4 y for boys (n = 79) and 15.9 y for girls (n = 80). Heights and weights were measured to calculate body-mass indices (BMI). Dietary intakes were based on 3-d food records analyzed using the Nutritionist IV program. Mean energy intakes were 2326 kcal/d for boys and 1545 kcal/d for girls. Dietary energy density, based on foods and caloric beverages only, was 1.0 kcal/g. Dietary ED was positively associated with percent energy from fat and negatively with percent energy from sugar. The main sources of dietary energy in this group were baked goods, cereals, regular soda, low-fat milk, fruit juices, bagels and pizza. Percent energy from fast foods was associated with higher dietary energy density, whereas percent energy from dairy products, soft drinks, vegetables, and fruit was associated with lower dietary energy density. These results are consistent with past observations; higher energy density diets were higher in fat. In contrast, there was a negative relationship between sugar content and energy density of the diet.

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Michael J. Cramer, Charles L. Dumke, Walter S. Hailes, John S. Cuddy and Brent C. Ruby

A variety of dietary choices are marketed to enhance glycogen recovery after physical activity. Past research informs recommendations regarding the timing, dose, and nutrient compositions to facilitate glycogen recovery. This study examined the effects of isoenergetic sport supplements (SS) vs. fast food (FF) on glycogen recovery and exercise performance. Eleven males completed two experimental trials in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Each trial included a 90-min glycogen depletion ride followed by a 4-hr recovery period. Absolute amounts of macronutrients (1.54 ± 0.27 g·kg-1 carbohydrate, 0.24 ± 0.04 g·kg fat-1, and 0.18 ± 0.03g·kg protein-1) as either SS or FF were provided at 0 and 2 hr. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis at 0 and 4 hr post exercise. Blood samples were analyzed at 0, 30, 60, 120, 150, 180, and 240 min post exercise for insulin and glucose, with blood lipids analyzed at 0 and 240 min. A 20k time-trial (TT) was completed following the final muscle biopsy. There were no differences in the blood glucose and insulin responses. Similarly, rates of glycogen recovery were not different across the diets (6.9 ± 1.7 and 7.9 ± 2.4 mmol·kg wet weight- 1·hr-1 for SS and FF, respectively). There was also no difference across the diets for TT performance (34.1 ± 1.8 and 34.3 ± 1.7 min for SS and FF, respectively. These data indicate that short-term food options to initiate glycogen resynthesis can include dietary options not typically marketed as sports nutrition products such as fast food menu items.

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Fiona Pelly and Susie Parker Simmons

onsite review. Content analysis resulted in three key themes from the comments received in the desk top review and are as follows: (a) the nutrient composition of menu items (in particular lack of information; n  = 6), (b) inclusion of more items suitable for dietary regimens (gluten-free, low lactose

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Claire Blennerhassett, Lars R. McNaughton, Lorcan Cronin and S. Andy Sparks

their suitability for the target population. Questions relating to the nutrient composition of foods and drinks were compared with U.K. guidelines (e.g., 3 g/100 g indicates low fat) and the sixth edition of McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods integrated data set ( Roe et al., 2007

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Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall and Louise M. Burke

in Australia found that it was considerably more expensive; for example, gluten-free flour, muesli, wraps, and bread may be 314–574% more expensive per 100 g than their regular counterpart ( Lambert & Ficken, 2015 ). The time taken to source appropriate foods and to obtain full nutrient composition

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Jason P. Brandenburg and Luisa V. Giles

activity was assessed using the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity test based on the methods of Ou et al. ( 2001 ). The anthocyanin assay was based on the methods described by Lee et al. ( 2005 ). Table 1 Nutrient Composition of Freeze-Dried Blueberry and Placebo Powders Freeze-dried blueberry powder (per

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Michael P. Corcoran, Miriam E. Nelson, Jennifer M. Sacheck, Kieran F. Reid, Dylan Kirn, Roger A. Fielding, Kenneth K.H. Chui and Sara C. Folta

; Tieland, Dirks, et al., 2012 ; Tieland, van de Rest, et al., 2012 ). These studies used supplements similar in nutrient composition to the one used in this study, except that whey protein isolate was used rather than milk protein. Additionally, in several of these studies, both experimental groups

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Mindy Patterson, Wanyi Wang and Alexis Ortiz

intake of all foods, beverages, and supplements over the prior 24 hours ( National Cancer Institute, 2011 ). Energy and nutrient composition were analyzed using the United States Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (version 4.1). Other measurements REE was estimated