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Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Antti A. Mero, Arja Leena Tuulia Uusitalo, and Trent Stellingwerff

We investigated one week of dietary microperiodization in elite female (n = 23) and male (n = 15) runners and race-walkers by examining the frequency of training sessions and recovery periods conducted with recommended carbohydrate (CHO) and protein availability. Food and training diaries were recorded in relation to HARD (intense or >90min sessions; KEY) versus RECOVERY days (other-than KEY sessions; EASY). The targets for amount and timing of CHO and protein around KEY sessions were based on current nutrition recommendations. Relative daily energy and CHO intake was significantly (p < .05) higher in males (224 ± 26 kJ/kg/d, 7.3 ± 1.4 g/kg/d CHO) than females (204 ± 29 kJ/kg/d, 6.2 ± 1.1 g/kg/d CHO) on HARD days. However, when adjusted for training volume (km), there was no sex-based difference in CHO intake daily (HARD: 0.42 ± 0.14 vs 0.39 ± 0.15 g/kg/km). Females appeared to periodize energy and protein intake with greater intakes on HARD training days (204 ± 29 vs 187 ± 35 kJ/kg/d, p = .004; 2.0 ± 0.3 vs 1.9 ± 0.3 g/kg/d protein, p = .013), while males did not periodize intakes. Females showed a pattern of periodization of postexercise CHO for KEY vs EASY (0.9 ± 0.4 vs 0.5 ± 0.3 g/kg; p < .05) while males had higher intakes but only modest periodization (1.3 ± 0.9 vs 1.0 ± 0.4; p = .32). There was only modest evidence from female athletes of systematic microperiodization of eating patterns to meet contemporary sports nutrition guidelines. While this pattern of periodization was absent in males, in general they consumed more energy and CHO daily and around training sessions compared with females. Elite endurance athletes do not seem to systematically follow the most recent sports nutrition guidelines of periodized nutrition.

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James A. Betts

, which do not generally provide the desired degree of control over the data collection (i.e., Did volunteers respond accurately, honestly, and independently?). Even assuming that diet is recorded effectively, many papers then express nutritional intake in terms of dietary adequacy or nutrient

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Vera Camões-Costa, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe, David Dixon, Isabella Russo, and Zoya Huschtscha

-[ring-2H5] phenylalanine infusion technique for PRO ( van Wijck et al., 2013 ). These gastrointestinal patency factors have implications for feeding tolerance, systemic nutrient availability, and subsequent GIS, which are all implicated in the nutritional status for optimizing recovery ( Costa et

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Reuben G. Stables, Andreas M. Kasper, S. Andy Sparks, James P. Morton, and Graeme L. Close

( Impey et al., 2018 ), body composition ( Kasper et al., 2019 ; Morton et al., 2010 ; Wilson et al., 2015 ), and exercise performance ( Burke & Hawley, 2018 ). In addition, nutrient availability can play a fundamental role in growth and maturation ( Hannon et al., 2020 ), mental health ( Wilson et

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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde, and Margo Mountjoy

; Nattiv et al., 2007 ; Rickenlund et al., 2005 ; Thompson et al., 1993 ; Tornberg et al., 2017 ; Turton et al., 2017 ). Low substrate and nutrient availability negatively affect cognitive and physical function and health as well as performance both directly and indirectly. LEA causes endocrine changes

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Jeffrey A. Rothschild, Andrew E. Kilding, and Daniel J. Plews

A key contributor for achieving optimal endurance performance is providing adequate carbohydrate (CHO) to working muscles, at a rate dependent upon the intensity and duration of exercise ( Jeukendrup, 2011 ). However, it has become evident that altering nutrient availability before, during, and

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Isabella Russo, Paul A. Della Gatta, Andrew Garnham, Judi Porter, Louise M. Burke, and Ricardo J.S. Costa

-dependent on nutrient availability postexercise, with a delayed feeding not preventing the exercise-associated immunodepression (ie, neutrophil function), irrespective of the nutrient content of the recovery beverage. Findings of an absent muscle glycogen resynthesis process in both recovery beverages suggest

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Graeme L. Close, Andreas M. Kasper, Neil P. Walsh, and Ronald J. Maughan

athletes. Nutrient availability influences immunity because macro- and micronutrients are involved in a multitude of immune processes, for example, macronutrients are involved in immune cell metabolism and protein synthesis and micronutrients in antioxidant defenses. For a more comprehensive account on