macronutrient and micronutrient requirements of training and competition, achieving optimal body mass (BM) and composition, and adopting specific nutritional strategies before, during, and after training to optimize performance ( Maughan & Shirreffs, 2011 ; Thomas et al., 2016 ). The selection of nutrient
D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke
Ahmed Ismaeel, Suzy Weems and Darryn S. Willoughby
al., 1999 ; Stewart et al., 2002 ). However, there are also potential disadvantages to macronutrient-based dieting. For example, many individuals who follow macronutrient-based diets may opt for empty calories over nutrient-dense foods too often, and may not incorporate a variety of fruits and vegetables
Barbara D. Eden and Peter J. Abernethy
The food and fluid intake of a male ultraendurance runner was recorded throughout a 1,005-km race completed over 9 days. The nutrient analysis showed an average daily energy intake of 25,000 kJ with 62% from carbohydrate, 27% from fat, and 11% from protein. Carbohydrate intake was estimated to be 16.8 g ·
Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling
to combat exercise-induced immunodepression effectively. Nutrients that have a role in immunonutrition are glucose, amino acids (for protein synthesis), and fatty acids, which act as fuels for energy generation in immune system cells and, importantly, enable the ability of cells to proliferate
Alice K. Lindeman
Meeting the energy demands of ultraendurance cycling requires careful planning and monitoring of food and fluid intake. This case study presents the nutrient intake of a cyclist while training for and competing in the Race Across AMerica (RAAM). Carbohydrate accounted for 65% of the calories consumed during training (4,743 kcal), 75% during 24-hr races (10,343 kcal), and 78% during RAAM (8,429 kcal). Gastrointestinal complaints during RAAM included nausea, feeling of fullness, and abdominal distension. Although probably exacerbated by sleep deprivation, these problems were all diet related. Based on this experience, it appears that by controlling the carbohydrate concentration of beverages, limiting dietary fiber, and relying on carbohydrate as the primary energy source, one could both control gastrointestinal symptoms and promote optimal performance in training and in ultramarathon cycling.
Marina Nikić, Željko Pedišić, Zvonimir Šatalić, Saša Jakovljević and Danielle Venus
The aim of this study was to assess the nutrient intakes of elite junior basketball players in comparison with nonathletes.
A previously designed food frequency questionnaire was undertaken by 57 male elite junior basketball players 15 to 16 years of age and 53 nonathlete peers.
Mean estimated energy intake was more than 700 kcal higher in basketball players than in the nonathletes (p = .002). In both groups estimated energy intake was ~14% from protein, 38% from fat, and ~48% from carbohydrates. For the basketball players, estimated protein intake was below 1.4 g/kg in 32% of the group and above 1.7 g/kg in 51%, while carbohydrate intake was below 6 g/kg in 56%. Percentages of participants who apparently failed to meet the estimated average requirement for micronutrients were higher in the nonathlete group. The nutrients most likely to fail to meet the recommendations for nutrient density were vitamin A (~70%), zinc (49% in basketball players and 30% in nonathletes), niacin and calcium (~30% for both micronutrients in both groups).
Within the limitations of the survey methodology, elite junior basketball players appear to consume higher absolute energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intakes than nonathletes, but the contribution of macronutrients to daily energy intake and the nutrient density of food choices was similar for both groups. Elite junior basketball players might benefit from nutrition education targeting carbohydrate and protein intake. Dietary modifications that increase intakes of vitamin A, zinc, calcium and niacin in the diets of both groups might also be of value.
This study assessed the nutrient intake and eating behavior in Norwegian female elite athletes suffering from eating disorders (ED) who met the criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN), anorexia athletica (AA), or bulimia nervosa (BN). The subjects included 7 AN, 43 AA, 42 BN, and 30 controls. Three-day and 24-hr food records were used to assess energy and nutrient intake. Results revealed that a significant number of AN and AA athletes have diets too low in energy and nutrients, the mean intake for energy and CHO being lower than recommended for active females. A significant number did not reach the protein level recommended for athletes. In addition, there were low intakes of several micronutrients, most notably calcium, vitamin D, and iron. The energy and nutritional inadequacy, combined with the use of purging, are of major concern since the athletes in this study were relatively young. It is unknown whether the abnormal eating pattern is a consequence of ED or is typical of top level athletes.
Floris C. Wardenaar, Rianne Dijkhuizen, Ingrid J.M. Ceelen, Emma Jonk, Jeanne H.M. De Vries, Renger F. Witkamp and Marco Mensink
The objective of this study was to investigate whether ultramarathon runners were able to meet nutrition recommendations during a training period and on a competition day.
In preparation for a 60 or 120 km ultramarathon covering a varied terrain, male and female ultramarathon runners (n = 68, age 46.5 ± 7.1 y) reported habitual dietary intake during three independent days using a web-based 24-hr recall and questionnaires. The diet was assessed using probability of inadequacy or by qualitative evaluation using reference dietary intakes or sports nutrition recommendations. A small group of 120 km runners (n = 4) was observed continuously during the race. After the race, 60 km runners (n = 41) received a questionnaire to assess dietary intake and gastrointestinal (GI) distress on the race day. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r) were applied to investigate the association between intake and general GI distress symptoms.
In men and women, habitual mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was lower than recommended, as was mean protein intake by women. CHO intake during the race was <60 g/h in 75% of the athletes. A large variation of nutrient and fluid intake was seen. GI distress during the race was reported in 82% of the runners; severe GI distress was low. In general, moderate, mostly negative, correlations with nutrient intake were seen for GI distress.
Sports nutrition recommendations for the habitual diet were not achieved. During a competition day, a large variation was found in nutrient intake; this may be related to a high incidence of GI distress.
Satya S. Jonnalagadda, Dan Benardot and Marian Nelson
The nutrient intakes and dietary practices of elite, U.S. national team, artistic female gymnasts (n = 33) were evaluated using 3-day food records. The gymnasts' reported energy intake was 34.4 kcal/kg (total 1,678 kcal/day), which was 20% below the estimated energy requirement. The contributions of protein, fat, and carbohydrate to total energy intake were 17%, 18%, and 66%, respectively. All reported vitamin intakes, except vitamin E, were above the RDA. The reported mineral intakes, especially calcium, zinc, and magnesium, were less than 100% of the RDA. The overall nutrient densities of the subjects' diets were higher than expected. Eighty-two percent of the gymnasts reported taking nonprescription vitamin and mineral supplements, and 10% reported taking prescription vitamin and mineral supplements. Forty-eight percent of the gymnasts reported being on a self-prescribed diet. Compared to NHANES III, the reported nutrient intake of these gymnasts was different from that of the average U.S. adolescent female. In summary, certain key nutrients such as calcium, iron, and zinc should be given more attention to prevent nutrient deficiencies and subsequent health consequences.
Pamela S. Hinton, Tiffany C. Sanford, M. Meghan Davidson, Oksana F. Yakushko and Niels C. Beck
The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary intakes and behaviors of male and female collegiate athletes. Athletes (n = 345) at a NCAA Division I university completed an anonymous questionnaire. T-tests, χ2 statistic and ANOVA were used to assess gender and sport differences. Multiple linear regression was used to assess gender differences in nutrient intakes, controlling for energy intake and to examine the relationships between desired weight change, dietary behaviors, and nutrient intakes. Only 15% and 26% of athletes had adequate intakes of carbohydrate and protein, respectively, based on recommendations for athletes. Males were more likely to exceed the Dietary Guidelines for fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium than females. Sixty-two percent of female athletes wanted to lose at least 5 lbs compared to 23% of males. The desire to lose weight was associated with decreased energy and macronutrient consumption, but not with inadequate micronutrient intakes.