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Regina Belski, Alex Donaldson, Kiera Staley, Anne Skiadopoulos, Erica Randle, Paul O’Halloran, Pam Kappelides, Steve Teakel, Sonya Stanley and Matthew Nicholson

to improve the nutrition knowledge of coaches and increase their self-efficacy in advising young Australian football players about nutrition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a simple nutrition education session embedded in a mandatory Australian football coach education course

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David L. Nichols, Charlotte F. Sanborn, Eve V. Essery, Rachel A. Clark and Jennifer D. Letendre

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of jumping activities and nutrition education on bone accretion in prepubescents. Fourth-grade children were divided into four groups: jumping (n = 61), nutrition (n = 9), jumping plus nutrition (n = 14), and control (n = 28). Interventions spanned the fourth and fifth grade academic years. Assessments were gathered at 0, 8 and 20 months. Baseline BMD values were (mean ± SD): lumbar (0.752 ± 0.095 g/cm2), neck (0.794 ± 0.089 g/cm2) and total (0.907 ± 0.060 g/cm2). There was a significant increase in BMD over time. However, the interventions produced no significant effects. Twice weekly jumping and/or biweekly nutrition education did not influence bone accrual.

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Katelyn Barnes, Lauren Ball and Ben Desbrow

Personal trainers are well placed to provide nutrition care in line with their recommended scope of practice. However, providing nutrition care beyond their recommended scope of practice has been identified as an industry risk. The International Confederation of Registers for Exercise Professionals (ICREPs) have international standards for nutrition knowledge and skills that are recommended for all fitness professionals, including personal trainers. This study investigates whether the ICREPs standards align with i) national nutrition education standards and ii) national nutrition occupational standards and scopes of practice for personal trainers within ICREPs affiliated countries. Content analysis of each standard and/or scope of practice was undertaken to extract nutrition statements. Extracted statements were matched with nutrition components of the ICREPs standards to result in a score based on the number of aligned ICREPs knowledge and skills criteria. Ten countries, with 16 organizations, were identified as being involved in the development of national education standards, occupational standards, or scopes of practice for personal trainers. The educational and occupational standards varied widely among countries and had minimal alignment with the ICREPs standards. As such, the expected role of personal trainers in providing nutrition care appeared to differ between countries. Further work is required to support personal trainers to develop a level of knowledge and skills that enables the provision of safe, consistent, and effective nutrition care.

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José Joaquín Muros, Mikel Zabala, María Jesús Oliveras-López, Paula Rodríguez Bouzas, Emily Knox, José Ángel Rufián-Henares and Herminia López-García de la Serrana

Background:

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutritional education and vigorous physical activity on health-related parameters.

Methods:

The sample group consisted of 134 children from 5 rurally located schools. Participants were divided between 5 different experimental groups: control group (CG), physical activity group (PA), nutritional education group (NE), combined intervention group (PA+NE), and a combined intervention group with additional substitution of normally used oil for extra virgin olive oil (EVOO; PA+NE+EVOO). The intervention consisted of 60 minute sessions of physical activity held twice a week as well as nutritional education sessions held over 6 months.

Results:

Students in the groups receiving physical activity reduced their fat percentage and increased their muscle mass post intervention. At posttest the lipid profile improved in all intervention groups. The proportion of macronutrients and dietary cholesterol improved in the groups receiving nutritional education. The posttest comparison showed significantly lower fat percentage, sum of skinfolds and waist circumference in NE relative to CG and PA relative to CG. Diastolic blood pressure and glycaemia were significantly lower in PA+NE+EVOO relative to CG.

Conclusion:

A school-based program consisting of nutritional education or nutritional education plus a physical activity program showed a positive effect on health-related parameters in children.

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Kristine Larson Clark

Athletic departments in colleges and universities are beginning to recognize the role a sports nutrition professional plays in providing both clinical nutrition services to athletes and nutrition education programs to teams, coaches, and trainers. Traditionally, sports nutritionists have been viewed as capable of counseling athletes toward improved nutrition behaviors for improved performance outcomes. More globally, a sports nutritionist at a major university can develop and implement nutrition education programs for athletes that can be implemented in alternative situations to effect the greater student body. Menu changes in dining facilities, expanded dining hours, and campus workshops on eating disorders, weight gain, or weight loss are examples of programs created by a university sports nutritionist.

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Nancy Clark

After graduating from college and entering the work force, young adult athletes often struggle with the task of fueling themselves optimally for top performance and weight control. The stresses and time constraints of work, family, and social responsibilities often result in eating fast foods on the run. These young adults can benefit from nutrition education programs at the worksite, at health clubs, in the community, and via the media. Dietitians who specialize in sport nutrition have particular appeal to these athletes, who are struggling to eat well, exercise well, and stay lean yet put little time or effort into their food program. This article includes two case studies of young adults and the dietary recommendations that taught them how to make wise food choices, fuel themselves well for high energy, and control their weight.

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Mary Yannakoulia, Marietta Sitara and Antonia-Leda Matalas

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention program that combined nutrition education and prevention of disordered eating in a group of female professional dance students. Thirty-two dancers, aged 19-25 years, took part in the program. Evaluation was done by a series of questionnaires that participants were asked to complete on 3 occasions. Assessments of body composition and dietary intake were also performed. Significant improvements in nutrition knowledge as well as a decrease in abnormal eating behavior and dietary restraint were observed at post intervention. At 6-month follow-up, the positive effects were maintained and further benefits were recorded; only nutrition knowledge showed a minor decline. Participants who were at higher risk for adopting abnormal eating behavior benefited the most from the program. These findings encourage the implementation of intervention programs in groups of young women that experience particular pressures for controlling body weight.

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Brooke L. Devlin and Regina Belski

Nutrition knowledge is believed to influence nutritional intake, which in turn influences performance in elite athletes. There is currently no published data on the nutrition knowledge of elite Australian Football (AF) players. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current level of general and sports nutrition knowledge in elite male AF athletes. Forty six elite male AF players (23.5 ± 2.8 years) answered 123 questions relating to five areas of nutrition knowledge: dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, choosing everyday foods, alcohol and sports nutrition. Demographic details and perceptions of nutrition knowledge were collected for all participants. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 74.4 ± 10.9 (60.5%). The highest score was obtained in sports nutrition section (17.9 ± 3.0, 61.7%). The dietitian was selected as the first source of information by 98% of athletes, with club trainer and teammates as second choice for 45.7% and 23.9% of athletes, respectively. The majority of athletes correctly answered questions regarding recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake and decrease fat intake (95.6%, 91.1% and 93.3% correct respectively). While 80% of the athletes were aware fat intake should predominately be made up of unsaturated fat, they were less able to identify food sources of unsaturated fats (35.6% and 24.4% correct for statements regarding monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, respectively). Broad nutrition messages and recommendations appear to be well understood; however, gaps in nutrition knowledge are evident. A better understanding of nutrition knowledge in athletes will allow nutrition education interventions to target areas in need of improvement.

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Keren Susan Cherian, Ashok Sainoji, Balakrishna Nagalla and Venkata Ramana Yagnambhatt

before and during training. An excess carbohydrate intake was observed posttraining (Tables  4 and 5 ), mainly through consumption of a main meal. A similar observation was made earlier ( 3 ). Thus, imparting appropriate nutrition education to JSPs on the timing of carbohydrate intake is necessary

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Lori W. Turner and Martha A. Bass

Female athletes often engage in harmful dietary and weight control practices that can impair bone health and hinder performance. To promote related positive health behavior practices, nutrition educators may be more effective if they understand the osteoporosis knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among female athletes. A questionnaire including items related to osteoporosis and dietary calcium knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral practices was administered to 114 female collegiate athletes (19.6 ± 1.4 years). Self-reported intakes of dairy product consumption were also obtained; subjects were asked how many times per week they drank milk and ate cheese, yogurt, and ice cream. The mean score for osteoporosis knowledge was 7.1 ± 1.9 (out of 10 items). The mean score for favorable responses to attitude items was 2.1 ± 0.8 (out of 3 items). Correct responses to dietary calcium knowledge items were 2.2 ± 0.7 (out of 3 items). On average, subjects consumed 2.4 ± 1.6 servings of dairy products per day; 31% of subjects consumed the recommended 3 or more servings per day. Osteoporosis knowledge, osteoporosis attitudes, and dietary calcium knowledge were not correlated (p > .05) with dairy product intake. Because of the importance of achieving a high peak bone mass to prevent osteoporosis, our data suggest that further research is needed regarding other factors that might influence dairy product intake among female athletes.