This study investigated the association between general nutrition knowledge and dietary quality in a convenience sample of athletes (> state level) recruited from four Australian State Sport Institutes. General nutrition knowledge was measured by the validated General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire and diet quality by an adapted version of the Australian Recommended Food Score (A-ARFS) calculated from food frequency questionnaire data. Analysis of variance and linear modeling were used to assess relationships between variables. Data: mean (Standard Deviation). A total of 101 athletes (Males: 37; Females: 64), 18.6 (4.6) years were recruited mainly from team sports (72.0%). Females scored higher than males for both nutrition knowledge (Females: 59.9%; Males: 55.6%; p = .017) and total A-ARFS (Females: 54.2% Males: 49.4%; p = .016). There was no significant influence of age, level of education, athletic caliber or team/individual sport participation on nutrition knowledge or total A-ARFS. However, athletes engaged in previous dietetic consultation had significantly higher nutrition knowledge (61.6% vs. 56.6%; p = .034) but not total A-ARFS (53.6% vs. 52.0%; p = .466). Nutrition knowledge was weakly but positively associated with total A-ARFS (r = .261, p= .008) and A-ARFS vegetable subgroup (r = .252, p = .024) independently explaining 6.8% and 5.1% of the variance respectively. Gender independently explained 5.6% of the variance in nutrition knowledge (p = .017) and 6.7% in total A-ARFS (p = .016). Higher nutrition knowledge and female gender were weakly but positively associated with better diet quality. Given the importance of nutrition to health and optimal sports performance, intervention to improve nutrition knowledge and healthy eating is recommended, especially for young male athletes.
Inge Spronk, Susan E. Heaney, Tania Prvan and Helen T. O’Connor
Adamasco Cupisti, Claudia D’Alessandro, Silvia Castrogiovanni, Alice Barale and Ester Morelli
This study aims to investigate dietary composition and nutrition knowledge of 60 athlete and 59 non-athlete adolescent females (age, 14-18 years), using a 3-day food recall and a questionnaire on nutrition. The reported daily energy intake was similar in athletes and non-athletes, but less than the recommended and the estimated requirements. In the athletes, the energy supply from breakfast was higher than in the non-athletes (18.5 ± 6.6 vs. 15.0 ± 8.2%, p < .005). Energy intake from carbohydrates was higher (53.6 ± 6.2 vs. 49.8 ± 63%, p < .05) and that from lipids was lower (30.4 ± 5.5 vs. 34.2 ± 5.2%, p < .001) in athletes than in non-athletes. Athletes also showed higher fiber (20.0 ± 5.8 vs. 14.1 ± 4.3 g/day, p < .001). iron (10.6±5.1 vs. 7.5 ± 2.1 mg/day,/7 < .001) and vitamin A (804 ± 500 vs, 612 ± 456 μg/day, p < .05) reported intake than non-athletes. Calcium, iron, and zinc intake were less than 100% RDA in both groups. Athletes gave a slightly higher rate of correct answers on the nutrition knowledge questionnaire (77.6 vs. 71.6%,p < .01) than non-athletes. In conclusion, the overall recalled dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of the studied adolescent females show some misconceptions and nutrient deficiencies, but the results in athletes are quite better man in non-athletes, suggesting a favorable role of sport practice on dietary habits and nutrition knowledge.
Maria Heikkilä, Raisa Valve, Mikko Lehtovirta and Mikael Fogelholm
nutrition knowledge, coaches are the most important sources of nutrition knowledge for their athletes ( Birkenhead & Slater, 2015 ; Cotugna et al., 2005 ). Because of the close relationship between coaches and athletes, the attitudes and behaviors of the former may have a notable influence on athletes
Claire Blennerhassett, Lars R. McNaughton, Lorcan Cronin and S. Andy Sparks
symptoms of exercise-associated hyponatremia has led to a number of fatalities ( Rosner & Kirven, 2007 ). Therefore, assessing baseline nutrition knowledge of athletes could facilitate targeted nutrition education to optimize nutritional status during ultraendurance training and competition. Previous
Rachel Lohman, Amelia Carr and Dominique Condo
); therefore, little is currently known about this particular aspect of players’ nutritional intake. Sports nutrition knowledge is an understanding of the nutritional considerations and strategies specific to sports performance ( Spronk et al., 2015 ). It is one factor that can influence athletes’ nutritional
Regina Belski, Alex Donaldson, Kiera Staley, Anne Skiadopoulos, Erica Randle, Paul O’Halloran, Pam Kappelides, Steve Teakel, Sonya Stanley and Matthew Nicholson
., 2015 ), and a high proportion of young athletes have limited nutrition knowledge ( Heaney et al., 2011 ; Torres-McGehee et al., 2012 ). Although sports coaches often provide nutrition advice to athletes ( Cockburn et al., 2014 ; Danaher & Curley, 2014 ; Juzwiak & Ancona-Lopez, 2004 ), many coaches
Susan Heaney, Helen O’Connor, Scott Michael, Janelle Gifford and Geraldine Naughton
Nutrition education aims to enhance knowledge and improve dietary intake in athletes. Understanding athletes’ nutrition knowledge and its influence on dietary intake will inform nutrition-education programs in this population.
To systematically review the level of nutrition knowledge in athletes, benchmark this against nonathlete comparison groups, and determine the impact of nutrition knowledge on dietary intake.
An extensive literature search from the earliest record to March 2010 using the terms nutrition knowledge or diet knowledge and athlete or sport was conducted. Included studies recruited able or physically disabled, male or female, competitive (recreational or elite) athletes over the age of 13 yr. Quantitative assessment of knowledge and, if available, diet intake was required. Because of variability in the assessment of nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, meta-analysis was not conducted.
Twenty-nine studies (17 published before 2000) measuring nutrition knowledge (7 including a nonathlete comparison group) met inclusion criteria. Athletes’ knowledge was equal to or better than that of nonathletes but lower than comparison groups including nutrition students. When found statistically significant, knowledge was greater in females than males. A weak (r < .44), positive association between knowledge and dietary intake was reported in 5 of 9 studies assessing this. Common flaws in articles included inadequate statistical reporting, instrument validation, and benchmarking.
The nutrition knowledge of athletes and its impact on their dietary intake is equivocal. There is a need for high-quality, contemporary research using validated tools to measure nutrition knowledge and its impact on dietary intake.
Mahsa Jessri, Maryam Jessri, Bahram RashidKhani and Caryn Zinn
The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge and the factors determining this knowledge in Iranian college basketball and football athletes. By highlighting gaps in nutrition knowledge of these athletes, sport nutrition professionals may begin to address these gaps by educating athletes with a view toward minimizing injury and enhancing sport performance. Sixty-six basketball and 141 football players (response rate 78.4%) from 4 medical and 8 nonmedical universities in Tehran agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study. A 2-part questionnaire was used; the first part comprised questions identifying demographic information, and the second part comprised a previously well-validated questionnaire on sport nutrition knowledge. The overall knowledge score was 33.2% (± 12.3%). Men scored 28.2% (± 12.7%), and women, 38.7% (± 14.2%). In both genders, the highest score was obtained for the nutrients subcategory, and the supplements subcategory was the most poorly answered. When compared with their peers, a significantly higher score was obtained by women (p < .001), athletes at medical universities (p < .001), and those obtaining nutrition information from reputable sources (p = .03). The coach was cited by 89.4% of athletes as their main source of nutrition information. This study showed that the sport nutrition knowledge of these athletes is inadequate. Considering that this substandard level of knowledge may contribute to poor dietary behaviors, these athletes would benefit from nutrition-related training and education.
Barbara G. Wiita and Isabelle A. Stombaugh
The purpose of this study was to examine changes in nutrition knowledge, intakes, attitudes, and behaviors as well as health status of 22 female adolescent runners. Subjects completed questionnaires, interviews, and dietary analyses twice over a 3-year period. Over this time they experienced physical growth and improved athletic performance. Although their mean score on a test of basic and sports nutrition knowledge remained stable at 67%, after 3 years more runners correctly responded to statements about carbohydrate and fat. However, fewer responded correctly to statements regarding fluid intake and skipping meals. Although runners increased the percentage of calories consumed as carbohydrates, they significantly decreased their mean energy intake, thus lowering carbohydrate intake. They significantly lowered protein, calcium, potassium, and sodium intakes. The incidence of possible eating disorders increased, as did stress fractures. Over 3 years, nutrition knowledge did not improve, the quality of dietary intakes decreased, incidence of eating disorders and stress fractures increased, and menstrual irregularities remained high.
Michael C. Andrews and Catherine Itsiopoulos
Athletes require sufficient nutrition knowledge and skills to enable appropriate selection and consumption of food and fluids to meet their health, body composition, and performance needs. This article reports the nutrition knowledge and dietary habits of male football (soccer) players in Australia. Players age 18 years and older were recruited from 1 A-League club (professional) and 4 National Premier League clubs (semiprofessional). No significant difference in general nutrition knowledge (GNK; 54.1% ± 13.4%; 56.8% ± 11.7%; M ± SD), t(71) = -0.91, p = .37, or sports nutrition knowledge (SNK; 56.9% ± 15.5%; 61.3% ± 15.9%), t(71) = -1.16, p = .25) were noted between professional (n = 29) and semiprofessional (n = 44) players. In general, players lacked knowledge in regard to food sources and types of fat. Although nutrition knowledge varied widely among players (24.6–82.8% correct responses), those who had recently studied nutrition answered significantly more items correctly than those who reported no recent formal nutrition education (62.6% ± 11.9%; 54.0% ± 11.4%), t(67) = 2.88, p = .005). Analysis of 3-day estimated food diaries revealed both professionals (n = 10) and semiprofessionals (n = 31) consumed on average less carbohydrate (3.5 ± 0.8 gC/kg; 3.9 ± 1.8 gC/kg) per day than football-specific recommendations (FIFA Medical and Assessment Research Centre [F-MARC]: 5–10 gC/kg). There was a moderate, positive correlation between SNK and carbohydrate intake (n = 41, ρ = 0.32, p = .04), indicating that players who exhibited greater SNK had higher carbohydrate intakes. On the basis of these findings, male football players in Australia would benefit from nutrition education targeting carbohydrate and fat in an attempt to improve nutrition knowledge and dietary practices.