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Nutritional Supplements and the Brain

Romain Meeusen and Lieselot Decroix

stimuli to recall memorial representations of experiences with particular food items. These memorial representations can be pleasant or unpleasant (e.g., conditioned food/taste aversion). It is clear that nutrition (and supplements) will influence brain functioning. Nutrition provides the proper building

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Efficacy of an Exercise and Nutritional Supplement Program on Physical Performance and Nutritional Status in Older Adults With Mobility Limitations Residing at Senior Living Facilities

Michael P. Corcoran, Miriam E. Nelson, Jennifer M. Sacheck, Kieran F. Reid, Dylan Kirn, Roger A. Fielding, Kenneth K.H. Chui, and Sara C. Folta

 al., 2012 ; Vincent & Velkoff, 2010 ). There is a need for a greater understanding of real-world programming in community settings for at-risk older adults. Most studies of exercise and/or nutrition programs for this population have been conducted either with highly-trained research personnel who met with

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Using Contemporary Behavior Change Science to Design and Implement an Effective Nutritional Intervention Within Professional Rugby League

Nessan Costello, Jim McKenna, Louise Sutton, Kevin Deighton, and Ben Jones

Designing and implementing successful dietary intervention is integral to the role of sport nutrition professionals as they attempt to positively change the dietary behaviors of athletes. High-performance sport is a time-pressured environment where the necessity for immediate results can often

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Nutritional and Pharmacological Interventions to Expedite Recovery Following Muscle-Damaging Exercise in Older Adults: A Narrative Review of the Literature

Tom Clifford

manage these symptoms in older adults. Some of the most popular strategies to attenuate EIMD are nutritional and pharmacological supplements, such as antioxidants (AOXs; McGinley, Shafat, & Donnelly, 2009 ), milk ( Cockburn, Robson-Ansley, Hayes, & Stevenson, 2012 ; Cockburn, Hayes, French, Stevenson

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Nutritional Considerations for Bouldering

Edward J. Smith, Ryan Storey, and Mayur K. Ranchordas

Bouldering competitions are held up to International level and governed by the International Federation of Sport Climbing. Bouldering has been selected to feature at the 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo, however, physiological qualities and nutritional requirements to optimize performance remain inadequately defined due to large gaps in the literature. The primary goals of training include optimizing the capacity of the anaerobic energy systems and developing sport-specific strength, with emphasis on the isometric function of the forearm flexors responsible for grip. Bouldering athletes typically possess a lean physique, similar to the characteristics of sport climbers with reported body fat values of 6–12%. Athletes strive for a low body weight to improve power to weight ratio and limit the load on the extremities. Specialized nutritional support is uncommon and poor nutritional practices such as chronic carbohydrate restriction are prevalent, compromising the health of the athletes. The high intensity nature of bouldering demands a focus on adequate carbohydrate availability. Protein intake and timing should be structured to maximize muscle protein synthesis and recovery, with the literature suggesting 0.25–0.3 g/kg in 3–4 hr intervals. Supplementing with creatine and b-alanine may provide some benefit by augmenting the capacity of the anaerobic systems. Boulderers are encouraged to seek advice from nutrition experts to enhance performance, particularly important when weight loss is the desired outcome. Further research is warranted across all nutritional aspects of bouldering which is summarized in this review.

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Nutritional Supplements in the Clinical Management of Tendinopathy: A Scoping Review

Ian Burton and Aisling McCormack

attention has been given to the potential therapeutic efficacy of dietary interventions and nutritional supplements in the clinical management of musculoskeletal conditions such as tendinopathy in both the general population and athletes. 6 Several micronutrients, vitamins, natural compounds, and

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Nutritional Recommendations for Divers

Dan Benardot, Wes Zimmermann, Gregory R. Cox, and Saul Marks

Competitive diving involves grace, power, balance, and flexibility, which all require satisfying daily energy and nutrient needs. Divers are short, well-muscled, and lean, giving them a distinct biomechanical advantage. Although little diving-specific nutrition research on performance and health outcomes exists, there is concern that divers are excessively focused on body weight and composition, which may result in reduced dietary intake to achieve desired physique goals. This will result in low energy availability, which may have a negative impact on their power-to-weight ratio and health risks. Evidence is increasing that restrictive dietary practices leading to low energy availability also result in micronutrient deficiencies, premature fatigue, frequent injuries, and poor athletic performance. On the basis of daily training demands, estimated energy requirements for male and female divers are 3,500 kcal and 2,650 kcal, respectively. Divers should consume a diet that provides 3–8 g/kg/day of carbohydrate, with the higher values accommodating growth and development. Total daily protein intake (1.2–1.7 g/kg) should be spread evenly throughout the day in 20 to 30 g amounts and timed appropriately after training sessions. Divers should consume nutrient-dense foods and fluids and, with medical supervision, certain dietary supplements (i.e., calcium and iron) may be advisable. Although sweat loss during indoor training is relatively low, divers should follow appropriate fluid-intake strategies to accommodate anticipated sweat losses in hot and humid outdoor settings. A multidisciplinary sports medicine team should be integral to the daily training environment, and suitable foods and fluids should be made available during prolonged practices and competitions.

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Nutritional Recommendations for Synchronized Swimming

Sherry Robertson, Dan Benardot, and Margo Mountjoy

The sport of synchronized swimming is unique, because it combines speed, power, and endurance with precise synchronized movements and high-risk acrobatic maneuvers. Athletes must train and compete while spending a great amount of time underwater, upside down, and without the luxury of easily available oxygen. This review assesses the scientific evidence with respect to the physiological demands, energy expenditure, and body composition in these athletes. The role of appropriate energy requirements and guidelines for carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients for elite synchronized swimmers are reviewed. Because of the aesthetic nature of the sport, which prioritizes leanness, the risks of energy and macronutrient deficiencies are of significant concern. Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport and disordered eating/eating disorders are also of concern for these female athletes. An approach to the healthy management of body composition in synchronized swimming is outlined. Synchronized swimmers should be encouraged to consume a well-balanced diet with sufficient energy to meet demands and to time the intake of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to optimize performance and body composition. Micronutrients of concern for this female athlete population include iron, calcium, and vitamin D. This article reviews the physiological demands of synchronized swimming and makes nutritional recommendations for recovery, training, and competition to help optimize athletic performance and to reduce risks for weight-related medical issues that are of particular concern for elite synchronized swimmers.

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Markers of Bone Health, Bone-Specific Physical Activities, Nutritional Intake, and Quality of Life of Professional Jockeys in Hong Kong

Eric Tsz-Chun Poon, John O’Reilly, Sinead Sheridan, Michelle Mingjing Cai, and Stephen Heung-Sang Wong

of bone health, bone-specific PA habits, nutritional intake, and QOL of professional jockeys in Hong Kong, with gender-, age-, and body mass index-matched controls. Methods Participants and Experimental Design Fourteen flat-racing male jockeys (representing ∼27% of the total jockey population in Hong

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A Systematic Review of CrossFit® Workouts and Dietary and Supplementation Interventions to Guide Nutritional Strategies and Future Research in CrossFit®

Ricardo Augusto Silva de Souza, André Guedes da Silva, Magda Ferreira de Souza, Liliana Kataryne Ferreira Souza, Hamilton Roschel, Sandro Fernandes da Silva, and Bryan Saunders

® WODs (e.g., heart rate [HR] response, oxygen uptake, blood lactate [Lac] response, etc.) to optimize gains for improved adaptation, recovery, and, ultimately, performance. In this regard, nutrition plays a pivotal role in maintaining health, supporting training and recovery processes, and enhancing