including water, electrolytes, and CHO. 17 Although it is not clear whether this is evidence informed, both athletes and practitioners (to a greater extent) showed appropriate nutritional practices during training in the heat. Strengths and Limitations The use of an online questionnaire-based study
Salma Alabdulwahed, Natalia Galán-López, Tom Hill, Lewis J. James, Bryna Catherine Rose Chrismas, Sebastien Racinais, Trent Stellingwerff, Diogo V. Leal, Matheus Hausen, Karim Chamari, Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Christopher Esh, and Lee Taylor
Jenni M. Felder, Louise M. Burke, Brian J. Lowdon, David Cameron-Smith, and Gregory R. Collier
The aim of this study was to assess the dietary practices of 10 elite female surfers. Four- and five-day food diaries completed over competition and training periods demonstrated energy intakes (mean ± SD) of 9,468 kJ (±2,007) and 8,397 kJ (±1,831), respectively. This level of energy intake was less than that estimated for the requirements of surfing. Female surfers' carbohydrate intakes failed to meet the recommendations, and suboptimal zinc intake was observed with 90% of subjects not meeting the Australian RDI. Comparisons between competition and training demonstrated that carbohydrate (g and g/kg body weight) and confectionary (g) intakes were significantly higher (p < .05) and protein intake was significantly lower (p < .05) during competition. These results show that although body fat stores were not compromised (mean 22%), self-reported energy, carbohydrate, and nutrient intakes were marginal in elite female surfers. Questionnaires revealed that 90% of surfers did not have good nutritional habits while traveling, which was compounded by a lack of knowledge of nutritional practices.
TO OUR READERS: An error appeared in the ahead-of-print version of the following article: Alabdulwahed S, Galán-López N, Hill T, et al. Heat adaptation and nutrition practices: athlete and practitioner knowledge and use [published online March 24, 2022]. Int J Sports Physiol Perform . https
Anecdotal claims have suggested that an increasing number of ultramarathoners purposely undertake chronic low-carbohydrate (CHO) ketogenic diets while training, and race with very low CHO intakes, as a way to maximize fat oxidation and improve performance. However, very little empirical evidence exists on specific fueling strategies that elite ultramarathoners undertake to maximize race performance. The study’s purpose was to characterize race nutrition habits of elite ultramarathon runners. Three veteran male ultrarunners (M ± SD; age 35 ± 2 years; mass 59.5 ± 1.7 kg; 16.7 ± 2.5 hr 100-mi. best times) agreed to complete a competition-specific nutrition intake questionnaire for 100-mi. races. Verbal and visual instructions were used to instruct the athletes on portion sizes and confirm dietary intake. Throughout 2014, the athletes competed in 16 ultramarathons with a total of 8 wins, including the prestigious Western States Endurance Run 100-miler (14.9 hr). The average prerace breakfast contained 70 ± 16 g CHO, 29 ± 20 g protein, and 21 ± 8 g fat. Athletes consumed an average of 1,162 ± 250 g of CHO (71 ± 20g/hr), with minor fat and protein intakes, resulting in caloric intakes totaling 5,530 ± 1,673 kcals (333 ± 105 kcals/hr) with 93% of calories coming from commercial products. Athletes also reported consuming 912 ± 322 mg of caffeine and 6.9 ± 2.4 g of sodium. Despite having limited professional nutritional input into their fueling approaches, all athletes practiced fueling strategies that maximize CHO intake and are congruent with contemporary evidence-based recommendations.
P. Farajian, S.A. Kavouras, M. Yannakoulia, and L.S. Sidossis
To investigate whether aquatic athletes follow optimal dietary intake, 58 athletes, all members of the Greek national swimming and water polo teams, were tested. Dietary intake was assessed at the nutrient, food, and food group level using the 24-h recall method and a food frequency questionnaire. Mean energy intake for males and females was 14.3 and 8.5 MJ, respectively. Mean carbohydrate consumption for male and female athletes was 4.5 g/kg and 3.8 g/kg of body weight, respectively. Fat intake was 153 g for males and 79 g for females. A significant number of the athletes (71% of the males, 93% of the females) did not meet the Dietary Reference Intakes for at least one of the antioxidant vitamins. The data suggest that athletes of both genders consumed too much fat and too little carbohydrate. Insufficient fruit and vegetable intake was related to low intake of antioxidants.
Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey and Jeanette Crosland
This study described the dietary intake profiles of 14 female (F) and 9 male (M) trained British wheelchair games players. The M group showed significantly higher daily energy (2060 ± 904 vs. 1520 ± 342 kcal·day-1), carbohydrate and protein intakes than the F group (p < .05). The energy derived from carbohydrate, protein, and fat for both F and M groups were similar (53.6%, 16.9% and 29.3% and 53.3%, 19.0% and 26.8%, respectively), yet the carbohydrate intakes were slightly lower than those recommended for athletes. Only two participants from the F group showed adequate intakes of iron, and 19 participants from both F and M groups did not meet the dietary fiber recommendation but this may be related to individualized bowel management strategies. Overall, the dietary practices encompassed aspects of the dietary guidelines recommended for sport, but balancing the energy needs of wheelchair games play with the promotion of long-term health still needs careful consideration.
Dana M. Lis, Trent Stellingwerff, Cecilia M. Shing, Kiran D.K. Ahuja, and James W. Fell
Adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) for nonceliac athletes (NCA) has become increasingly popular despite a paucity of supportive medical or ergogenic evidence. This study aimed to quantify the demographics of NCA and determine associated experiences, perceptions, and sources of information related to GFD. Athletes (n = 910, female = 528, no gender selected = 5) completed a 17-question online survey. Forty-one percent of NCA respondents, including 18-world and/or Olympic medalists, follow a GFD 50–100% of the time (GFD > 50): only 13% for treatment of reported medical conditions with 57% self-diagnosing their gluten sensitivity. The GFD > 50 group characteristics included predominantly endurance sport athletes (70.0%) at the recreationally competitive level (32.3%), between 31 and 40 years of age (29.1%). Those who follow a GFD > 50 reported experiencing, abdominal/gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms alone (16.7%) or in conjunction with two (30.7%) or three (35.7%) additional symptoms (e.g., fatigue) believed to be triggered by gluten. Eighty-four percent of GFD > 50 indicated symptom improvement with gluten-removal. Symptom-based and non-symptom-based self-diagnosed gluten-sensitivity (56.7%) was the primary reason for adopting a GFD. Leading sources of GFD information were online (28.7%), trainer/coach (26.2%) and other athletes (17.4%). Although 5–10% of the general population is estimated to benefit clinically from a GFD a higher prevalence of GFD adherence was found in NCA (41.2%). Prescription of a GFD among many athletes does not result from evidence-based practice suggesting that adoption of a GFD in the majority of cases was not based on medical rationale and may be driven by perception that gluten removal provides health benefits and an ergogenic edge in NCA.
Lize Havemann and Julia H. Goedecke
The aim of the study was to investigate the pre- and during-race nutritional intake of cyclists competing in a 210-km 1-day ultraendurance cycle race. Forty-five endurancetrained male cyclists participated in this dietary survey and completed a 3-day dietary record. Mean reported carbohydrate (CHO) intake over the 3 days before the race (5.6 ± 1.7 g/kg) was below the recommended guidelines of 7–10 g/kg. Although 57% of participants indicated that they CHO loaded 1–3 days before the race, only 23% of these participants achieved CHO intakes of ≥7 g/kg over the 3-day period before the race, demonstrating a discrepancy between perceived and actual intakes of CHO. Most participants indicated the use of CHO supplements before (84%) and during (98%) the race and achieved a CHO intake of 63 ± 23 g/hr during the race. Although most cyclists failed to meet recommended prerace CHO intakes, most achieved the recommended CHO intakes during the race.
Hans Braun, Judith von Andrian-Werburg, Wilhelm Schänzer, and Mario Thevis
. Nutritional practices of elite athletes. Practical recommendations . Sports Med . 1993 ; 16 ( 6 ): 381 – 99 . PubMed doi:10.2165/00007256-199316060-00004 10.2165/00007256-199316060-00004 8303140 16. Edwards AM , Mann ME , Marfell-Jones MJ , Rankin DM , Noakes TD , Shillington DP
Steven Couture, Benoit Lamarche, Eliane Morissette, Veronique Provencher, Pierre Valois, Claude Goulet, and Vicky Drapeau
The objectives of this study were to evaluate high school coaches’ knowledge in sports nutrition and the nutritional practices they recommend to their athletes. Forty-seven high school coaches in “leanness” and “non-leanness” sports from the greater region of Quebec (women = 44.7%) completed a questionnaire on nutritional knowledge and practices. “Leanness sports” were defined as sports where leanness or/and low bodyweight were considered important (e.g., cheerleading, swimming and gymnastics), and “non-leanness sports” were defined as sports where these factors are less important (e.g., football). Participants obtained a total mean score of 68.4% for the nutrition knowledge part of the questionnaire. More specifically, less than 30% of the coaches could answer correctly some general nutrition questions regarding carbohydrates and lipids. No significant difference in nutrition knowledge was observed between coaches from “leanness” and “non-leanness” sports or between men and women. Respondents with a university education scored higher than the others (73.3% vs. 63.3%, p < .05). Coaches who participated in coaching certification also obtained better results than those without a coaching certification. The most popular source of information about nutrition used by coaches was the Internet at 55%. The two most popular nutrition practices that coaches recommended to improve athlete performance were hydration and consumption of protein-rich foods. Recommendation for nutritional supplements use was extremely rare and was suggested only by football coaches, a nonleanness sport. Findings from this study indicate that coaches need sports nutrition education and specific training.