focus in this article (Figures 1 and 2 ). For individuals interested in nutrition interventions in events of a biomechanical and structural performance origin, please see Sygo et al. ( 2018 ). In order to understand how these interventions may relate to the energetic demands of a given exercise bout
Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield
Nessan Costello, Jim McKenna, Louise Sutton, Kevin Deighton and Ben Jones
interventions to be successful within the challenging environment of professional sport ( Coutts 2016 ; Jones et al., 2017a ). The purpose of this case study was to demonstrate how the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW; Michie et al., 2014 ) was used to design and implement a successful nutritional intervention
-specific conditioning. This training program was not performed at a higher intensity or involved an increase in strength training compared with the training program at baseline. Methods Nutritional Intervention Body composition adjustment was achieved by creating an energy deficit through a combination of energy
Lisa K. Sharp, Marian L. Fitzgibbon and Linda Schiffer
Despite the increased health risks for obese Black women, relatively little research has explored physical activity and nutrition interventions for these women. This article describes the recruitment strategies used in a program designed specifically for obese Black women.
Recruitment of Black women age 30 to 65 years with body mass indices between 30 kg/m2 and 50 kg/m2 was completed using in-person recruitment and flyers within 2 miles of the intervention site along with mass e-mails within the sponsoring university system. Medical clearance from a physician was an eligibility requirement because of Institutional Review Board safety concerns.
Of the 690 women who were screened, 213 (31%) were eligible and randomized. The most common reason for exclusion was failure to return a medical clearance form (n = 167, 39% of ineligible). Different rates of efficiency were noted across recruitment approaches.
Black women were successfully recruited using in-person community recruitment, e-mail, and community flyers within close proximity to the intervention site. Careful consideration should be given to the advantages and disadvantages of various recruitment strategies that might not generalize across studies.
Mary Yannakoulia, Marietta Sitara and Antonia-Leda Matalas
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention program that combined nutrition education and prevention of disordered eating in a group of female professional dance students. Thirty-two dancers, aged 19-25 years, took part in the program. Evaluation was done by a series of questionnaires that participants were asked to complete on 3 occasions. Assessments of body composition and dietary intake were also performed. Significant improvements in nutrition knowledge as well as a decrease in abnormal eating behavior and dietary restraint were observed at post intervention. At 6-month follow-up, the positive effects were maintained and further benefits were recorded; only nutrition knowledge showed a minor decline. Participants who were at higher risk for adopting abnormal eating behavior benefited the most from the program. These findings encourage the implementation of intervention programs in groups of young women that experience particular pressures for controlling body weight.
Aaron Raman, Paul W. Macdermid, Toby Mündel, Michael Mann and Stephen R. Stannard
The aim of this study was to ascertain whether a high carbohydrate diet in the days before movement patterns simulating a squash match would increase carbohydrate oxidation during the match, and alter physical performance. Nine New Zealand level squash players were recruited to complete a simulated squash match on two occasions: 1) following a 48-hr high carbohydrate (11.1g·kg−1); and 2) following a calorie-matched low carbohydrate (2.1 g·kg−1) diet. The interventions were assigned in a randomized, single-blind, cross-over design. The match simulation was designed to mimic a five-game match lasting approximately 1 hr. Performance was measured as time to complete each game. Expired respiratory gases and heart rate were continuously collected throughout the trial using a portable gas analysis system. Capillary blood glucose and lactate samples were obtained during a 90 s rest period between each game. Rating of perceived exertion was also recorded after each set. Respiratory exchange ratio was significantly higher during exercise following the high CHO diet (0.80 vs. 0.76) p < .001) and this was associated with significantly faster time to complete the games (2340 ± 189 s vs. 2416 ± 128 s, p = .036). Blood glucose and lactate concentrations were also significantly higher in the high carbohydrate condition (p = .038 and p = .021 respectively). These results suggest that ingestion of a diet high in carbohydrate (>10 g/kg body weight) preceding simulated competitive squash produces increased rates of carbohydrate oxidation and maintains higher blood glucose concentrations. These metabolic effects were associated with improved physical performance.
Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke
A strong foundation in physical conditioning and sport-specific experience, in addition to a bespoke and periodized training and nutrition program, are essential for athlete development. Once these underpinning factors are accounted for, and the athlete reaches a training maturity and competition level where marginal gains determine success, a role may exist for the use of evidence-based performance supplements. However, it is important that any decisions surrounding performance supplements are made in consideration of robust information that suggests the use of a product is safe, legal, and effective. The following review focuses on the current evidence-base for a number of common (and emerging) performance supplements used in sport. The supplements discussed here are separated into three categories based on the level of evidence supporting their use for enhancing sports performance: (1) established (caffeine, creatine, nitrate, beta-alanine, bicarbonate); (2) equivocal (citrate, phosphate, carnitine); and (3) developing. Within each section, the relevant performance type, the potential mechanisms of action, and the most common protocols used in the supplement dosing schedule are summarized.
( Paxton et al., 2012 ). Nutrition Intervention Normal dietary intake for the player was not tracked, nor did the player report changes in dietary intake over the length of the study. One hour before the patellar tendon targeted training program, the athlete consumed 15 g of gelatin with ∼225 mg vitamin C
Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke
plan ( Stellingwerff et al., 2007 ). Recently, periodized nutrition has been defined as “the planned, purposeful, and strategic use of specific nutritional interventions to enhance the adaptations targeted by individual exercise sessions or periodic training plans, or to obtain other effects that will
Claire E. Badenhorst, Katherine E. Black and Wendy J. O’Brien
. Table 1 Prolonged Training (>1–2 days) Investigations and Postexercise Hepcidin Activity Without Nutritional Intervention Study reference Population Participants Duration Results Ishibashi, Maeda, Sumi, and Goto ( 2017 ) n = 16 Female long-distance runners 7 months with two training blocks Low: base