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Elliot R. Cooper, Kristine C.Y. McGrath, XiaoHong Li and Alison K. Heather

 al. report that prohormones at similar concentrations occurred through cross-contamination during the manufacturing process ( Geyer et al., 2008 ). Since 2002, it has also been documented that nutritional supplements have been purposely spiked with 1 mg/g of anabolic androgenic steroids ( Geyer et al., 2008

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Romain Meeusen and Lieselot Decroix

brain function in healthy individuals is only moderate ( Rae & Broër, 2015 ; see also Rawson et al., 2018 ). Nutritional Supplements and Fatigue Events arising entirely from within the brain can influence an individual’s sensation of fatigue and thus potentially affect performance. This opens an

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Matthias Kamber, Norbert Baume, Martial Saugy and Laurent Rivier

We report the findings of the analysis of 75 different nutritional supplements bought through the internet. Seven products (all from the class of prohormones) contained other hormone substances than indicated on the labels, and two further products contained ephedrine and caffeine without a clear indication on the labels.

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Michael P. Corcoran, Miriam E. Nelson, Jennifer M. Sacheck, Kieran F. Reid, Dylan Kirn, Roger A. Fielding, Kenneth K.H. Chui and Sara C. Folta

 al., 2014 ). It is unclear whether a group-structured exercise-nutritional supplement program for mobility-limited residents of senior living facilities is effective and feasible when led at the facility by community volunteers or facility staff employees. The Vitality, Independence, and Vigor for Elders

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Carl M. Maresh, Catherine L. Gabaree, Jay R. Hoffman, Daniel R. Hannon, Michael R. Deschenes, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Avron Abraham, Frederick E. Bailey and William J. Kraemer

To examine the effect of a nutritional supplement (ATP-E™) on high intensity exercise performance, 23 physically active males volunteered to perform six Wingate Anaerobic Power tests. Tests were performed prior to and at 14 and 21 days during ATP-E~o~r placebo ingestion. f i e experiment followed a double-blind and random-order design. Twelve subjects (responders, R) showed an increase in preexercise blood ATP on Day 14 of ATP-E™ ingestion compared to control measures. The remaining 11 subjects (nonresponders, NR) had no change in pree~e~cibselo od ATP. Peak power and mean power were unchanged for both R and NR subjects across the exercise tests, but R experienced a decrease (p < 0.05) in immediate postexercise plasma lactate on Day 14 of ATP-E™ testing compared to their control measures. NR had no change in peak plasma lactate at any time during the study. The results suggest that short-term high intensity exercise performance was maintained in R with less reliance on anaerobic metabolism, and that response was evident following 14 days of ATP-E™ ingestion.

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Lindsay A. Ellis, Brandon A. Yates, Amy L. McKenzie, Colleen X. Muñoz, Douglas J. Casa and Lawrence E. Armstrong

Urine color (Ucol) as a hydration assessment tool provides practicality, ease of use, and correlates moderately to strongly with urine specific gravity (Usg) and urine osmolality (Uosm). Indicative of daily fluid turnover, along with solute and urochrome excretion in 24-hr samples, Ucol may also reflect dietary composition. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of Ucol as a hydration status biomarker after nutritional supplementation with beetroot (880 mg), vitamin C (1000 mg), and riboflavin (200 mg). Twenty males (Mean ± SD; age, 21 ± 2 y; body mass, 82.12 ± 15.58 kg; height, 1.77 ± 0.06 m) consumed a standardized breakfast and collected all urine voids on one control day (CON) and 1 day after consuming a standardized breakfast and a randomized and double-blinded supplement (SUP) over 3 weeks. Participants replicated exercise and diet for one day before CON, and throughout CON and SUP. Ucol, Usg, Uosm, and urine volume were measured in all 24-hr samples, and Ucol and Usg were measured in all single samples. Ucol was a significant predictor of single sample Usg after all supplements (p < .05). Interestingly, 24-hr Ucol was not a significant predictor of 24-h Usg and Uosm after riboflavin supplementation (p = .20, p = .21). Further, there was a significant difference between CON and SUP 24-h Ucol only after riboflavin supplementation (p < .05). In conclusion, this investigation suggests that users of the UCC (urine color chart) should consider riboflavin supplementation when classifying hydration status and use a combination of urinary biomarkers (e.g., Usg and Ucol), both acutely and over 24 hr.

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Attila Szabo, Márk Bérdi, Ferenc Köteles and György Bárdos

The aim of this work was to examine the link between the physical-perceptual characteristics of nutritional supplements and their expected effectiveness in enhancing sport performance. Participants (n = 267) ranked nine images of fictive nutritional supplements, varying in shape, color, and route of administration (e.g., pill, powder, lotion, etc.), in ranked- order of expected effectiveness. They performed the task three times, 1) for strength, 2) endurance, and 3) for concentration. Results have revealed that the perceived effectiveness of the supplements was statistically significantly different for the three types of performances (p < .001). A significant interpersonal variability was observed in the ranking-order of the supplements. The findings reveal that perceptual characteristics of ‘believed to be nutritional supplements’, aimed at sport performance enhancement, influence their perceived effectiveness. Future inquiries in sport nutrition should examine the relationship between expected and experienced effectiveness of various nutritional supplements in enhancing sport performance.

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Christina Tsitsimpikou, Nastasia Chrisostomou, Peter Papalexis, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Aristidis Tsatsakis and Athanasios Jamurtas

Although the use of nutritional supplements by professional athletes and the benefits thereof have been extensively studied, information on recreational athletes’ use of supplements is limited. This study investigated the consumption of nutritional supplements, source of information and supply of supplements, and level of awareness with regard to the relevant legislation among individuals who undertake regular exercise in Athens, Greece. A closed-ended, anonymous questionnaire was answered by 329 subjects (180 men, 149 women), age 30.6 ± 12.1 yr, from 11 randomly selected gym centers. Preparations declared as anabolic agents by the users were submitted to a gas chromatographic analyzer coupled to a mass spectrometric detector. Consumption of nutritional supplements was reported by 41% of the study population, with proteins/amino acids and vitamins being the most popular. Age (r = .456, p = .035), sex (χ2 = 14.1, df = 1, p < .001), level of education (χ2 = 14.1, df = 3, p < .001), and profession (χ2 = 11.4, df = 4, p = .022) were associated with the subjects’ decision to consume nutritional supplements. Most (67.1%) purchased products from health food stores. Only 17.1% had consulted a physician or nutritionist, and one third were aware of the relevant legislation. Two preparations were detected containing synthetic anabolic steroids not stated on the label. In conclusion, use of nutritional supplements was common among recreational athletes in Athens, Greece. A low level of awareness and low involvement of health care professionals as sources of information and supply were observed.

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Edited by Melvin H. Williams

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Kate L. Pumpa, Sharon M. Madigan, Ruth E. Wood-Martin, Richelle Flanagan and Noreen Roche

The use of sport supplements presents a dilemma for many of those involved in supporting athletes, including coaches, families, support staff, and the athletes themselves. Often the information that they source can be incorrect and promote a biased view regarding the use of nutritional supplements. The aim of this case study was to describe the process that occurred around the development of a series of targeted educational fact sheets on a range of nutritional supplements for Irish athletes. It describes the initiation and support of the process by the Irish Sports Council; one of its subgroups, the Food and Food Supplements Committee; and the Irish Institute of Sport. A needs assessment through questionnaires was carried out to establish the most commonly used sport nutrition supplements by athletes age 16 or over in Ireland. Respondents completed 105 questionnaires over a 4-mo period in 2008–09 that led to the production of 20 supplement fact sheets. These supplement fact sheets will enable Irish athletes to access high-quality, up-to-date, scientific information about the supplements they have reported consuming. Since personal reading had a strong influence over athletes’ decision-making process for taking nutritional supplements, as did scientific research, fact sheets available on the Internet from a reliable source are an ideal way to educate Irish athletes.