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Romain Meeusen and Lieselot Decroix

stimuli to recall memorial representations of experiences with particular food items. These memorial representations can be pleasant or unpleasant (e.g., conditioned food/taste aversion). It is clear that nutrition (and supplements) will influence brain functioning. Nutrition provides the proper building

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Rachel Lohman, Amelia Carr and Dominique Condo

 al., 2012 ; Johnston et al., 2018 ), resulting in a greater discrepancy between the two leagues. The physical efforts required within Australian football games and the associated training have implications for players’ nutritional requirements. During the preseason, typical durations of training are 1–4 hr

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

complexities of the individual, exposed to various stimuli (physical, emotional, and genetic), are probably much more complicated than most periodization purists would want to admit ( Kiely, 2018 ). Furthermore, the impact of nutrition on training adaptation and performance needs to be recognized. The 2007

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Maria Heikkilä, Raisa Valve, Mikko Lehtovirta and Mikael Fogelholm

The benefits of training, rest, and proper nutrition in athletic performance are unquestionable. In the case of young athletes, the important role of nutrition in growth and development should also be considered ( Cotugna et al., 2005 ). To understand the importance of daily food choices and

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Gina L. Trakman, Adrienne Forsyth, Kane Middleton, Russell Hoye, Sarah Jenner, Stephen Keenan and Regina Belski

to improve their general health, physique, or performance. Education to improve nutrition knowledge (NK) is a cornerstone of many interventions implemented to improve elite athletes’ diets ( Devlin et al., 2017 ). Likewise, nonelite athletes, who are motivated to follow an appropriate diet, are

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

demands of competitive ultramarathon training and event participation, an optimal nutritional intake is essential to support optimal performance. This applies during running and in the preparation and recovery periods. Potential health complications associated with such extreme endurance exercise also

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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

and chronic nutrition-based interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to provide an evidence-based update since the last International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) consensus meeting ( Stellingwerff et al., 2007 ) on contemporary nutrition recommendations to optimize

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Claire Blennerhassett, Lars R. McNaughton, Lorcan Cronin and S. Andy Sparks

( Sehovic et al., 2013 ). Yet, existing nutrition research has predominantly been limited to case studies ( Bescós et al., 2012 ; Stewart & Stewart, 2007 ) or observational studies of the dietary practices of these athletes ( Black et al., 2012 ; Hulton et al., 2010 ). This is likely due to difficulties

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Hans Braun, Judith von Andrian-Werburg, Wilhelm Schänzer and Mario Thevis

314,602 young female athletes ( 14 ). The large number of young female football players demonstrates the need of appropriate training and nutrition guidelines for athletic performance, growth, and development ( 20 , 47 ). Currently, specific nutrient recommendations for youth athletes are

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Shona L. Halson, Louise M. Burke and Jeni Pearce

, lengthy periods of travel are challenging if new surroundings expose the athlete to suboptimal training or nutrition practices that interfere with the larger goals of the annual plan or key mesocycles of training. As the management of new or challenging environmental conditions (e.g., heat and altitude