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Bhupinder Singh, Thomas D. Brown, John J. Callaghan and H. John Yack

During seated forward reaching tasks in obese individuals, excessive abdominal tissue can come into contact with the anterior thigh. This soft tissue apposition acts as a mechanical restriction, altering functional biomechanics at the hip, and causing difficulty in certain daily activities such as bending down, or picking up objects from the floor. The purpose of the study was to investigate the contact forces and associated moments exerted by the abdomen on the thigh during seated forward-reaching tasks in adult obese individuals. Ten healthy subjects (age 58.1 ± 4.4) with elevated BMI (39.04 ± 5.02) participated in the study. Contact pressures between the abdomen and thigh were measured using a Tekscan Conformat pressure-mapping sensor during forward-reaching tasks. Kinematic and force plate data were obtained using an infrared motion capture system. The mean abdomen-thigh contact force was 10.17 ± 5.18% of body weight, ranging from 57.8 N to 200 N. Net extensor moment at the hip decreased by mean 16.5 ± 6.44% after accounting for the moment generated by abdomen-thigh tissue contact. In obese individuals, abdomen-thigh contact decreases the net moment at the hip joint during seated forward-reaching activities. This phenomenon should be taken into consideration for accurate biomechanical modeling in these individuals.

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Chia-Yuan Yu, Ayoung Woo, Christopher Hawkins and Sara Iman

Obesity has become a critical public health issue in the United States. From 2011 to 2014, the percentage of obesity was estimated to be 36.5% among US adults. 1 Obesity can lead to several chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. 2 Variations

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Philip W. Fink, Sarah P. Shultz, Eva D’Hondt, Matthieu Lenoir and Andrew P. Hills

Pediatric obesity is considered a global epidemic, and the burden of excess mass has played an important role in the obese child’s inability to successfully perform functional movement tasks. Maintaining a stable posture is necessary for most activities of daily living; however, clinical measures

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Elizabeth Chmelo, Barbara Nicklas, Cralen Davis, Gary D. Miller, Claudine Legault and Stephen Messier

Purpose:

To assess correlates of physical activity, and to examine the relationship between physical activity and physical functioning, in 160 older (66 ± 6 years old), overweight/obese (mean body mass index = 33.5 ± 3.8 kg/m2), sedentary (less than 30 mins of activity, 3 days a week) individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

Methods:

Physical activity was measured with accelerometers and by self-report. Physical function was assessed by 6-min walk distance, knee strength, and the Short Physical Performance Battery. Pain and perceived function were measured by questionnaires. Pearson correlations and general linear models were used to analyze the relationships.

Results:

The mean number of steps taken per day was 6209 and the average PAEE was 237 ± 124 kcal/day. Participants engaged in 131 ± 39 minutes of light physical activity (LPA) and 10.6 ± 8.9 minutes of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MPA/VPA). Total steps/day, PAEE, and minutes of MPA/VPA were all negatively correlated with age. The 6-min walk distance and lower extremity function were better in those who had higher total steps/day, higher PAEE, higher minutes of MPA/VPA, and a higher PASE score.

Conclusions:

This study demonstrates that a population who has higher levels of spontaneous activity have better overall physical function than those who engage in less activity.

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Ashley A. Fenner, Erin K. Howie, Leon M. Straker and Martin S. Hagger

The current study explored whether a multidisciplinary family-based intervention underpinned by self-determination theory could enhance perceptions of parent need support, autonomous motivation, and quality of life in overweight and obese adolescents. Using a staggered-entry waitlist-period control design, adolescents (n = 56) were assessed at baseline and preintervention (within-participant control), immediately following intervention, and at 3, 6, and 12 month follow-ups. Parents were trained in need-supportive behaviors within the broader context of an 8-week multidisciplinary intervention attended jointly with adolescents. Following intervention, significant improvements were demonstrated in adolescent perceptions of parent need support, autonomous motivation, and quality of life, and changes were maintained at the 1-year follow-up. Mediation analyses revealed changes in perceptions of parent need support predicted changes in quality of life indirectly via changes in autonomous motivation. Findings suggest overweight and obese adolescents are likely to benefit from multidisciplinary family-based interventions that aim to train parents in need-supportive behaviors.

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Jane E. Yardley, Jacqueline Hay, Freya MacMillan, Kristy Wittmeier, Brandy Wicklow, Andrea MacIntosh and Jonathan McGavock

Type 2 diabetes is associated with hypertension and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In adults, blood pressure (BP) responses to exercise are predictive of these complications. To determine if the hemodynamic response to exercise is exaggerated in youth with dysglycemia (DG) compared with normoglycemic overweight/obese (OB) and healthy weight (HW) controls a cross-sectional comparison of BP and heart rate (HR) responses to graded exercise to exhaustion in participants was performed. DG and OB youth were matched for age, BMI z-score, height and sex. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were measured every 2 min, and HR was measured every 1 min. SBP was higher in OB and DG compared with HW youth at rest (p > .001). Despite working at lower relative workloads compared with HW, the BP response was elevated during exercise in OB and DG. For similar HR and oxygen consumption rates, BP responses to exercise were slightly higher in OB and DG compared with HW. OB and DG youth both display elevated resting and exercise BP relative to HW peers. Obesity may play a greater role than dysglycemia in the exaggerated BP response to exercise in youth.

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Gabrielle Ringenberg, Jill M. Maples and Rachel A. Tinius

In the United States, approximately one in three adults are classified as obese ( Flegal, Kruszon-Moran, Carroll, Fryar, & Ogden, 2016 ), defined as a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m 2 . These numbers are even higher among women, with 40.4% of American women being classified as

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David Silva, Ronaldo Gabriel, Helena Moreira, João Abrantes and Aurélio Faria

center of the pressure pathway of normal and flat feet were compared when crossing-obstacles of varying heights ( Han et al., 2015 ). Plantar pressure distribution in stroke patients ( Park et al., 2010 ) and middle-aged obese women ( Jung et al., 2011 ) were also evaluated when walking over obstacles of

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Xavier García-Massó, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti and Jose-Luis Bermejo

Overweight and obese children have now become a public health problem both in European countries and in other developed countries ( Ahrens et al., 2014 ). Lobstein et al. ( 2015 ) have shown that in about 30 years in the United States, the body mass of each child has increased by 5 kg on average

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Arya M. Sharma, Donna L. Goodwin and Janice Causgrove Dunn

Arya Mitra Sharma, MD, FRCPC, is Professor of Medicine at the University of Alberta and Medical Codirector of the Alberta Health Services Obesity Strategy. He is also the Scientific Director of the Canadian Obesity Network. Past appointments include positions as Professor of Medicine and Canada