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Viviene A. Temple, Dawn L. Lefebvre, Stephanie C. Field, Jeff R. Crane, Beverly Smith and Patti-Jean Naylor

ranged from 80.2% to 94.8%, with a mean of 87.8%. Mean and standard deviations were computed based on raw scores for locomotor skills, object control skills, and the five categories of activity. In addition, the prevalence of participation in each CAPE activity and the proportion of children with gross

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Sheri L. Berkeley, Lauriece L. Zittel, Lisa V. Pitney and Stacia E. Nichols

The purpose of this study was to examine the locomotor and object control skills of children, ages 6–8 years, with autism and to compare their performances with the norms reported by Ulrich (1985) for the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD). Consistent with trends from the general population, differences were found between boys (n = 10) and girls (n = 5) with the largest differences found in the object control skill performances. Overall fundamental skill delays were demonstrated by 73% of all participants, placing them in the poor and very poor TGMD performance categories. These findings support the need to assess the gross motor skills of young children with autism in addition to other developmental skill areas outlined in diagnostic manuals.

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Ross D. Neville, Fergal Lyons, Brendan Doyle and Kimberley D. Lakes

of performance (e.g., whether a goal was scored after a kick was taken). TGMD–2 is a widely validated and highly reliable test of FMS ( Lopes, Saraiva, & Rodrigues, 2018 ). Test-retest reliability for locomotor skills and object control skills have been reported as 0.88 and 0.93, respectively, and

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Rose M. Angell, Stephen A. Butterfield, Shihfen Tu, E. Michael Loovis, Craig A. Mason and Christopher J. Nightingale

Development of fundamental motor skills and patterns (FMSP) is crucial to participation in regular, vigorous physical activity. Competence in locomotor as well as object control skills (OCS) promotes involvement in activities of childhood and is requisite to successful participation in sports

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Judith Jiménez, Maria Morera, Walter Salazar and Carl Gabbard


Motor skill competence has been associated with physical activity level, fitness, and other relevant health-related characteristics. Recent research has focused on understanding these relationships in children and adolescents, but little is known about subsequent years. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between fundamental motor skill (FMS) ability and body mass index (BMI) in young adults.


Participants, 40 men and 40 women (M age = 19.25 yr, SD = 2.48), were assessed for BMI and motor competence with 10 fundamental motor skills (FMSs) using the Test for Fundamental Motor Skills in Adults (TFMSA).


BMI was negatively associated with total motor ability (r = –.257; p = .02) and object control skills (r = –.251; p = .02); the relationship with locomotor skills was marginally insignificant (r = –.204; p = .07). In regard to individual skills, a significant negative association was found for running, jumping, striking, and kicking (ps < .05). Multiple regression analysis indicated that BMI and gender predicted 42% of the variance in total FMS score; gender was the only significant predictor.


Overall, these preliminary findings suggest that young adults with higher FMS ability are more likely to have lower BMI scores.

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Xiangli Gu, Senlin Chen and Xiaoxia Zhang

application, and it is the setting where children optimize their social, emotional, and cognitive development. FMS, including locomotor (e.g., running, hopping, sliding) and object-control skills (e.g., dribbling, throwing, passing), are commonly developed through four developmental levels, namely, from pre

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Vaimanino Rogers, Lisa M. Barnett and Natalie Lander

). FMS are basic skills that have been typically divided into three categories, object control skills (such as catching and throwing), locomotor skills (such as running and hopping), and stability skills (such as balancing and twisting) ( Gallahue, Ozmun, & Goodway, 2012 ). It is expected that by age 10

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Stephanie C. Field, Christina B. Esposito Bosma and Viviene A. Temple

for children 3.0 to 10.11 years of age and include both locomotor skills and object control/ball skills subtests. Test of Gross Motor Development–Second Edition The TGMD-2 consists of six locomotor skills (gallop, hop, run, horizontal jump, slide, and leap) and six object control skills (overhand

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Lisa M. Barnett, David R. Lubans, Anna Timperio, Jo Salmon and Nicola D. Ridgers

FMS studies ( Slykerman et al., 2016 ). Actual FMS Children’s locomotor (run, leap, gallop, hop, slide, jump) and object control skills (kick, catch, underhand roll, overhand throw, stationary dribble, two-handed strike) were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2); ( Ulrich

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Nadia Cristina Valentini, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Mariele Santayana de Souza and Michael J. Duncan

Gross Motor Development-2 has 2 subtests: locomotor skills (LOCS; run, gallop, hop, leap, jump, and slide) and object control skills (OCS; strike, dribble, catch, kick, throw, and underhand roll). Overall raw scores and standard scores were provided; raw scores were used in the present study. Two