ranged from 80.2% to 94.8%, with a mean of 87.8%. Mean and standard deviations were computed based on raw scores for locomotor skills, object control skills, and the five categories of activity. In addition, the prevalence of participation in each CAPE activity and the proportion of children with gross
Viviene A. Temple, Dawn L. Lefebvre, Stephanie C. Field, Jeff R. Crane, Beverly Smith, and Patti-Jean Naylor
Sheri L. Berkeley, Lauriece L. Zittel, Lisa V. Pitney, and Stacia E. Nichols
The purpose of this study was to examine the locomotor and object control skills of children, ages 6–8 years, with autism and to compare their performances with the norms reported by Ulrich (1985) for the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD). Consistent with trends from the general population, differences were found between boys (n = 10) and girls (n = 5) with the largest differences found in the object control skill performances. Overall fundamental skill delays were demonstrated by 73% of all participants, placing them in the poor and very poor TGMD performance categories. These findings support the need to assess the gross motor skills of young children with autism in addition to other developmental skill areas outlined in diagnostic manuals.
Ross D. Neville, Fergal Lyons, Brendan Doyle, and Kimberley D. Lakes
of performance (e.g., whether a goal was scored after a kick was taken). TGMD–2 is a widely validated and highly reliable test of FMS ( Lopes, Saraiva, & Rodrigues, 2018 ). Test-retest reliability for locomotor skills and object control skills have been reported as 0.88 and 0.93, respectively, and
Jihyun Lee, Seung Ho Chang, and Jerred Jolin
skills and motor skills (particularly, object control skills such as kicking and catching), of children with ASD ( MacDonald, Lord, & Ulrich, 2013 ). For example, MacDonald et al. ( 2013 ) examined the relationship between calibrated ASD severity (independent of cognitive function) as measured by the
Ghada Regaieg, Sonia Sahli, and Gilles Kermarrec
compared to children without ID ( Maïano et al., 2019b ; Westendorp et al., 2011 ). Learned during childhood, FMS consist of locomotor skills that involve the body movement through space and object control skills that include manipulating an object in action situations ( Goodway et al., 2019 ; Haywood
Rose M. Angell, Stephen A. Butterfield, Shihfen Tu, E. Michael Loovis, Craig A. Mason, and Christopher J. Nightingale
Development of fundamental motor skills and patterns (FMSP) is crucial to participation in regular, vigorous physical activity. Competence in locomotor as well as object control skills (OCS) promotes involvement in activities of childhood and is requisite to successful participation in sports
Judith Jiménez, Maria Morera, Walter Salazar, and Carl Gabbard
Motor skill competence has been associated with physical activity level, fitness, and other relevant health-related characteristics. Recent research has focused on understanding these relationships in children and adolescents, but little is known about subsequent years. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between fundamental motor skill (FMS) ability and body mass index (BMI) in young adults.
Participants, 40 men and 40 women (M age = 19.25 yr, SD = 2.48), were assessed for BMI and motor competence with 10 fundamental motor skills (FMSs) using the Test for Fundamental Motor Skills in Adults (TFMSA).
BMI was negatively associated with total motor ability (r = –.257; p = .02) and object control skills (r = –.251; p = .02); the relationship with locomotor skills was marginally insignificant (r = –.204; p = .07). In regard to individual skills, a significant negative association was found for running, jumping, striking, and kicking (ps < .05). Multiple regression analysis indicated that BMI and gender predicted 42% of the variance in total FMS score; gender was the only significant predictor.
Overall, these preliminary findings suggest that young adults with higher FMS ability are more likely to have lower BMI scores.
Xiangli Gu, Senlin Chen, and Xiaoxia Zhang
application, and it is the setting where children optimize their social, emotional, and cognitive development. FMS, including locomotor (e.g., running, hopping, sliding) and object-control skills (e.g., dribbling, throwing, passing), are commonly developed through four developmental levels, namely, from pre
Vaimanino Rogers, Lisa M. Barnett, and Natalie Lander
). FMS are basic skills that have been typically divided into three categories, object control skills (such as catching and throwing), locomotor skills (such as running and hopping), and stability skills (such as balancing and twisting) ( Gallahue, Ozmun, & Goodway, 2012 ). It is expected that by age 10
Stephanie C. Field, Christina B. Esposito Bosma, and Viviene A. Temple
for children 3.0 to 10.11 years of age and include both locomotor skills and object control/ball skills subtests. Test of Gross Motor Development–Second Edition The TGMD-2 consists of six locomotor skills (gallop, hop, run, horizontal jump, slide, and leap) and six object control skills (overhand