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Matthew Pearce, David H. Saunders, Peter Allison and Anthony P. Turner

objective and subjective tools. This study, therefore, aims to answer 2 research questions: (1) How much time is spent and how much MVPA is accumulated in different contexts each day? (2) What are the strength and nature of associations between time spent in these contexts and total daily MVPA? Methods

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Sadjad Soltanzadeh and Mitchell Mooney

& Mooney 2016 ;). The central idea of systems thinking is that to understand parts of a system, we need to first understand the system as a whole. Parts don’t have independent realities; rather, they are understood in relation to each other and in relation to the objectives of the whole system. In this way

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Amy R. Barchek, Shelby E. Baez, Matthew C. Hoch and Johanna M. Hoch

physical activity is musculoskeletal injury including injuries to the knee 5 – 7 and ankle. 8 Most often subjective measures of physical activity have been utilized in these populations, including the Tegner activity scale 9 and the Marx activity scale. 10 However, most recently objective measures of

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Ana Queralt and Javier Molina-García

The built environment might influence population health by facilitating the physical activity (PA) for recreation and transportation. 1 Unlike the adult population, 1 the associations between objectively measured built-environment attributes and PA behavior in adolescents have so far been

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Jolanthe de Koning, Suzanne Richards and Afroditi Stathi

by recall difficulty and social desirability bias ( Colbert, Matthews, Havighurst, Kim, & Schoeller, 2011 ). Only two studies included in the Pels and Kleinert ( 2016 ) review used objectively measured PA. These did not support a relationship between loneliness and higher step counts in a cross

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Stephen Hunter, Andrei Rosu, Kylie D. Hesketh, Ryan E. Rhodes, Christina M. Rinaldi, Wendy Rodgers, John C. Spence and Valerie Carson

, to report physical activity, some studies have used parental reporting ( 12 , 22 ), which has higher measurement error than objective measures ( 33 ). Further, all studies performed analyses combining participants across age groups (eg, infants, toddlers, preschoolers). Toddlerhood is characterized

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Yuko Hashimoto, Ko Matsudaira, Susumu S. Sawada, Yuko Gando, Ryoko Kawakami, Chihiro Kinugawa, Takashi Okamoto, Koji Tsukamoto, Motohiko Miyachi, Hisashi Naito and Steven N. Blair

between the amount of physical activity assessed by questionnaire and that measured by an accelerometer. Furthermore, even though some studies used an accelerometer or pedometer as an objective index, they were conducted on a small scale and included approximately 100 participants. 14 – 16 To clarify the

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Jeremy A. Steeves, Scott A. Conger, Joe R. Mitrzyk, Trevor A. Perry, Elise Flanagan, Alecia K. Fox, Trystan Weisinger and Alexander H.K. Montoye

- and under-estimations) when compared to objective measurement tools ( Prince et al., 2008 ; Sallis & Saelens, 2000 ). In recent years there has been a proliferation of wearable physical activity tracking technologies ( Sullivan & Lachman, 2016 ; Thompson, 2018 ). A wide variety of research-grade and

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Herbert Hatze

Several biodynamical properties of tennis rackets such as vibrational characteristics, direction control, and the coefficient of restitution depend critically on the constraining mode of the handle. The racket response to ball impact differs fundamentally for rigid mechanical clamping of the handle and for hand-held gripping. In order to test objectively the biodynamical characteristics of tennis rackets under standardized but biomechanically realistic conditions, the use of a mechano-electronic replica of the human hand/arm system, termed manusimulator, is suggested. Sample test results of the vibrational characteristics of a specific tennis racket and of the coefficients of restitution of several rackets provide proof of the reproducibility and reliability of the test results so obtained. The results were compared with those obtained using human test players. The latter subjective method yielded data with excessively large coefficients of variation around 84% and was found to be unsuitable for determining tennis racket properties objectively. It is concluded that the standardizable manusimulator testing procedure offers a valuable alternative to subjective testing methods for determining tennis racket parameters.

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Marybell Avery and Angela Lumpkin

This study surveyed 2559 students enrolled in the physical education program at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill to determine which physical education objectives students considered to be most and least important and to assess if there were any differences based on gender and class in the responses. Descriptive statistics revealed that having fun, getting regular exercise, and keeping in good health and physical condition were most important. Providing vocational preparation, learning about human kinetics and exercise science, developing emotional stability, and developing self-realization were rated least important. Results of a principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation revealed that the 24 participation motives loaded on four factors: (a) self-worth, (b) physiological parameters, (c) social affiliation, and (d) lifetime use. ANOVAs on each factor revealed significant effects for class and gender on all the factors except the lifetime use factor. These findings extend those of Soudan and Everett (1981) and provide important information relative to class and gender as mediators of participation motives of students involved in a physical education activity program.