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Scott Simon, Loel Collins and Dave Collins

Observation of performance forms a critical part of the complex coaching process. A professional judgment and decision making (PJDM) framework enables optimum decisions to be made under time pressure and with limited information that derive from that observation. Observation and the associated decision making can be particularly affected by heuristic bias. We extend the work on PJDM via a greater focus on its relationship with observation within the coaching process. After revisiting PJDM and observation, we introduce and explore heuristics as a “tool” within the observation process. Specifically, we propose that observation is prone to heuristics built on a coach’s experience and understanding. We report on a small scale preliminary investigation with a group of high-level paddle sport coaches. We identify heuristics that both restrict and enhance the effectiveness of the observation in an effort to promote discussion and further research.

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Adam M. Bruton, Stephen D. Mellalieu and David A. Shearer

The purpose of this multistudy investigation was to examine observation as an intervention for the manipulation of individual collective efficacy beliefs. Study 1 compared the effects of positive, neutral, and negative video footage of practice trials from an obstacle course task on collective efficacy beliefs in assigned groups. The content of the observation intervention (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative video footage) significantly influenced the direction of change in collective efficacy (p < .05). Study 2 assessed the influence of content familiarity (own team/sport vs. unfamiliar team/sport) on individual collective efficacy perceptions when observing positive footage of competitive basketball performance. Collective efficacy significantly increased for both the familiar and unfamiliar conditions postintervention, with the largest increase for the familiar condition (p < .05). The studies support the use of observation as an intervention to enhance individual perceptions of collective efficacy in group-based activities. The findings suggest that observations of any group displaying positive group characteristics are likely to increase collective efficacy beliefs; however, observation of one’s own team leads to the greatest increases.

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Adriano Akira Ferreira Hino, Rodrigo S. Reis, Isabela C. Ribeiro, Diana C. Parra, Ross C. Brownson and Rogerio C. Fermino

Background:

Open public spaces have been identified as important facilities to promote physical activity (PA) at the community level. The main goals of this study are to describe open public spaces user's characteristics and to explore to what extent these characteristics are associated with PA behavior.

Methods:

A system of direct observation was used to evaluate the PA levels on parks and squares (smaller parks) and users's characteristics (gender and age). The 4 parks and 4 squares observed were selected from neighborhoods with different socioeconomic status and environmental characteristics. The settings were observed 3 times a day, 6 days per week, during 2 weeks.

Results:

More men than women were observed in parks (63.1%) and squares (70.0%) as well as more adults and adolescents than older adults and children. Users were more physically active in parks (men = 34.1%, women = 36.1%) than in squares (men = 25.5%, women 22.8%).

Conclusions:

The characteristics of public open spaces may affect PA in the observed places. Initiatives to improve PA levels in community settings should consider users' characteristics and preferences to be more effective and reach a larger number of people.

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Nicola Taylor, David Giles, Micha Panáčková, James Mitchell, Joel Chidley and Nick Draper

spite of this, there has been limited development and use of observational instruments for climbing performance. In part, this may be attributed to the complexities of climbing, which allow for multiple movement solutions to successfully ascend a route and which also depend on dynamic interactions

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Sarah Lawrason, Jennifer Turnnidge, Luc J. Martin and Jean Côté

can change their real-time behaviors through training ( Turnnidge & Côté, 2018 ). Consequently, calls have been advanced to complement questionnaire findings using systematic observation to assess changes in the real-time behavioral profiles of coaches after their participation in coach

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Laura St. Germain, Amanda M. Rymal and David J. Hancock

components (e.g., practice scheduling, type of feedback, and timing of feedback; Schmidt & Lee, 2014 ), including a learner’s ability to select relevant performance-related cues on which to focus. One method for attending to critical cues is by employing observational learning ( Bandura, 1977

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Ariel J. Dimler, Kimberley McFadden and Tara-Leigh F. McHugh

( Smith, 2004 ). In addition to interviews, observation was employed in this study to support a more in-depth understanding of the pole fitness context and how this context may shape the positive body image experiences of women. Such detailed understandings supported us as researchers when we sought to

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Eleanor Quested, Nikos Ntoumanis, Andreas Stenling, Cecilie Thogersen-Ntoumani and Jennie E. Hancox

-Based Observational Tools Observation is a methodological approach that involves having trained observers follow a specified protocol to record observed dialogue or behavior ( Darst, Zakrajsek, & Mancini, 1989 ). In the sport and education context, there have been several attempts to employ SDT-based observation

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Cornelia Frank, Taeho Kim and Thomas Schack

covertly practicing a motor action are practice by repeated imagery or by repeated observation. While both forms have shown to be associated with persisting improvements in motor performance (e.g.,  Driskell, Copper, & Moran, 1994 ; Shea, Wright, Wulf, & Whitacre, 2000 ), only little research has looked

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Rebecca Robertson, Laura St. Germain and Diane M. Ste-Marie

playback can also be considered a form of modeling, in which the self is observed executing a task on an unedited video (also referred to as self-observation [ Dowrick, 1999 ]). Within this modeling context, the writings of Bandura ( 1986 ) are significant as he proposed that models serve to convey