Endurance events >10 hr are becoming increasingly popular but provide numerous physiological challenges, several of which can be attenuated with optimal nutritional intakes. Previous studies in ultraendurance races have reported large energy deficits during events. The authors therefore aimed to assess nutritional intakes in relation to performance among ultraendurance cyclists. This observational study included 18 cyclists in a 384-km cycle race. At race registration each cyclist’s support crew was provided with a food diary for their cyclist. On completion of the race, cyclists were asked to recall their race food and drink intakes. All food and fluids were analyzed using a computer software package. Mean (SD) time to complete the race was 16 hr 21 min (2 hr 2 min). Mean (SD) energy intake was 18.7 (8.6) MJ, compared with an estimated energy requirement for the race of 25.5 (7.4) MJ. There was a significant negative relationship between energy intake and time taken to complete the race (p = .023, r 2 = −.283). Mean (SD) carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes were 52 (27), 15.84 (56.43), and 2.94 (7.25) g/hr, respectively. Only carbohydrate (p = .015, r 2 = −.563) and fat intake (p = .037, r 2 = −.494) were associated with time taken to complete the race. This study demonstrates the difficulties in meeting the high energy demands of ultraendurance cycling. The relationship between energy intake and performance suggests that reducing the energy deficit may be advantageous. Given the high carbohydrate intakes of these athletes, increasing energy intake from fat should be investigated as a means of decreasing energy deficits.
Katherine E. Black, Paula M.L. Skidmore and Rachel C. Brown
Juliana Pereira Borges, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano, Paulo Farinatti, Marina Pereira Coelho, Pablo Marino Correa Nascimento, Gabriella de Oliveira Lopes, Daniel Arkader Kopiler and Eduardo Tibiriçá
It remains unclear whether self-regulated exercise is sufficient to maintain the benefits acquired during formal cardiac rehabilitation (CR). This retrospective observational study investigated the effects of a home-based exercise intervention after discharge from CR upon anthropometric and aerobic capacity markers in clinically stable patients.
Fifty patients with cardiovascular disease were discharged after 6 months of CR and encouraged to maintain aerobic exercise without supervision. Subsequent to 6 months of follow-up, patients were assigned to compliant (n = 34) or noncompliant (n = 16) groups according to their compliance to the home-based program. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and anthropometric data were assessed before CR, at discharge, and after 6 months of follow-up.
No statistical differences between compliant and noncompliant groups were observed at baseline and at discharge from CR. At the end of the follow-up, statistical differences across groups were not found for body mass or body mass index, but increases in VO2peak (+3.6 vs. –0.6 ml/kg·min, P = 0.004) and oxygen pulse (+1.5 vs. +0.2 ml/bpm, P = .03) were greater in compliant than noncompliant group.
Self-regulated exercising following CR discharge seems to be effective to maintain gains in exercise capacity acquired during supervised center-based programs.
Shani Batcir and Itshak Melzer
clinical trials and observational studies that studied the same clinical topics; the results of the observational studies were extremely similar to those of the randomized controlled trials ( Concato, Shah, & Horwitz, 2000 ). In conclusion, bicycling regularly seems to preserve balance especially in the ML
Jeffrey O. Segrave and Claude A. Ciancio
In recent years, coaching behavior has been subjected to detailed scrutiny through the development and application of systematic observation techniques. This study extended this line of research into the area of youth sports by analyzing the coaching behavior of a successful Pop Warner football coach, Beau Kilmer. The study also sought to compare Kilmer’s coaching profile with the profiles of two successful college coaches, namely UCLA basketball coach John Wooden and Arizona State University football coach Frank Kush. The specific research tool used was the Coaching Behavior Recording Form. Twenty practices were sampled for observation. Data were compiled using event recording techniques. The results indicated that although instruction ranked first for all three coaches, Kilmer differed from Wooden and Kush in most other respects. The data suggest a differential use of coaching behaviors commensurate with the age and background of the athletes involved.
Heather R. Clark, Margo E. Barker and Bernard M. Corfe
Mountain marathons are 2-d, self-supported adventure races, during which competitors must carry all nutritional requirements to sustain athletic effort. This requires a compromise between the energy required to perform and the weight penalty of carrying it. We have undertaken a nutritional survey of event competitors in the UK using a questionnaire-based approach and have monitored dehydration during the event. We found that competitors in longer-distance classes (> 50 km) carry significantly less mass of food, which is more energy dense, but that the calorific value is lower than that of competitors in shorter classes. Carbohydrate and protein consumption both positively associated with performance. Competitors became progressively dehydrated throughout the event. Counterintuitively, the better-performing subjects became the most dehydrated. Competitors at all distances should make more effort to rehydrate during breaks in the event. Competitors at shorter distances could choose more energy-dense foods to reduce weight penalty.
David R. Bassett, Ray Browning, Scott A. Conger, Dana L. Wolff and Jennifer I. Flynn
The indoor built environment has the potential to influence levels of physical activity. However, the extent to which architectural design in commercial buildings can influence the percentage of people choosing to use the stairs versus elevators is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if buildings with centrally located, accessible, and aesthetically pleasing staircases result in a greater percentage of people taking the stairs.
Direct observations of stair and elevator use were conducted in 3 buildings on a university campus. One of the buildings had a bank of 4 centrally located elevators and a fire escape stairwell behind a steel door. The other 2 buildings had centrally located staircases and out-of-the-way elevators.
The percentage of people who ascended the stairs was 8.1% in the elevator-centric building, compared with 72.8% and 81.1% in the 2 stair-centric buildings (P < .001). In addition, the percentage of people who descended the stairs was 10.8% in the first building, compared with 89.5% and 93.7% in the stair-centric buildings (P < .001).
The results of the current study suggest that if buildings are constructed with centrally located, accessible, and aesthetically pleasing staircases, a greater percentage of people will choose to take the stairs.
Viviene Temple, Ryan Rhodes and Joan Wharf Higgins
Walking has been identified as a low resourced yet effective means of achieving physical activity levels required for optimal health. From studies conducted around the world, we know that dog owners walk more than nondog owners. However, this evidence is largely self-reported which may not accurately reflect dog-owners’ behaviors.
To address this concern, we systematically observed the use of 6 different public parks in Victoria, British Columbia during fair and inclement weather. Using a modified version of the SOPARC tool, we documented visitors’ types of physical activity, and the presence or absence of dogs. The Physical Activity Resource Assessment was used to consider park features, amenities, and incivilities.
More people without dogs (73%) visited the parks than those with dogs (27%), largely because of attendance at the multiuse sport parks during the summer months. Despite the opportunities to engage in multiple sports, most people used the parks to walk. However, when inclement weather struck, dog owners continued visiting parks and sustained their walking practices significantly more than nondog owners.
Our observational snapshot of park use supports earlier work that dogs serve as a motivational support for their owners’ walking practices through fair and foul weather.
Gordon A. Bloom, Rebecca Crumpton and Jenise E. Anderson
A systematic observation analysis was performed on Fresno State men’s basketball coach Jerry Tarkanian over the course of an entire season. Based on Tharp and Gallimore’s (1976) work and recent research on expert coaches’ training techniques (Côté et al., 1995; Durand-Bush, 1996), the Revised Coaching Behavior Recording Form was created to observe and record Tarkanian’s teaching behaviors and verbal cues. Results showed that tactical instructions was the most frequently occurring variable, representing 29% of the coded behaviors. This behavior was 13% higher than the second highest variable, hustles (16%). Following these two categories were technical instruction (13.9%), praise\encouragement (13.6%), general instructions (12%), scolds (6%), and six other categories with percentages less than 3%. This means that almost one-third of Coach Tarkanian’s practice behaviors relate to teaching offensive and defensive strategies to his team. This differs from the practice sessions of beginner- and intermediate-level coaches, who often focus on teaching fundamental skills to their athletes. A complete description of all 12 categories are provided along with implications for coaches of all levels.
Ming Fung Godfrey Lui, Hung Kay Daniel Chow, Wai Ming Kenny Wong and Wai Nam William Tsang
The effects of a single 3-mg dose of melatonin on the postural control and cognitive performance of community-dwelling older adults were documented. The testing involved stepping down while performing a cognitive task (a Stroop test). Thirty-four older adults were recruited. Immediately before and 1 hr after taking a dose of melatonin, they completed a single-leg standing task after stepping down with and without a simultaneous Stroop test, and a double-leg standing task. The findings indicated a statistically significant increase in sway area under the dual-tasking condition after taking melatonin (p = .04) and the double-leg standing task (p = .018). However, cognitive performance per se was not affected by the melatonin. Melatonin impairs postural control in older adults but not cognitive performance.
Alya H. Bdaiwi, Tanya Anne Mackenzie, Lee Herrington, Ian Horlsey and Ann Cools
Compromise to the acromiohumeral distance (AHD) has been reported in subjects with subacromial impingement syndrome when compared with healthy subjects. In clinical practice, patients are taped with the intention of altering scapular position and influencing the AHD. However, research to determine the effects of taping on AHD is exiguous.
To evaluate the effect of ridged taping techniques to increase posterior scapular tilt and upward scapular rotation on the AHD.
1-group pretest/posttest repeated-measures design.
Human performance laboratory.
20 asymptomatic participants (10 male and 10 female) age 27 y (SD 8.0 y).
Ridged tapping of the scapula into posterior tilt and upward scapular rotation.
Main Outcome Measure:
Ultrasound measurement of the AHD.
AHD increased significantly after rigid tape application to the scapula (P < .003) in healthy shoulders in 60° of passive arm abduction.
Taping techniques applied to the scapula had an immediate effect of increasing the AHD in healthy shoulders in 60° of passive arm abduction. Results suggest that taping for increasing posterior scapular tilt and increasing scapular upward rotation can influence the AHD and is a useful adjunct to rehabilitation in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome.