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Coaches’ and Officials’ Self-Reporting of Observational Learning

Laura St. Germain, Amanda M. Rymal, and David J. Hancock

components (e.g., practice scheduling, type of feedback, and timing of feedback; Schmidt & Lee, 2014 ), including a learner’s ability to select relevant performance-related cues on which to focus. One method for attending to critical cues is by employing observational learning ( Bandura, 1977

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Model Status as a Determinant of Observational Learning and Performance

Penny McCullagh

The primary purpose of this experiment was to determine if model characteristics influence observer performance by exerting their prime influence on the attentional phase of observational learning as predicted by Bandura (1969). A second purpose was to determine whether model characteristics affected actual amount learned or whether merely performance levels were affected by this manipulation. There were two experimental phases. During phase 1, model status (high or low) and time of cueing (pre or post demonstration) were manipulated to test performance and attentional effects of model characteristics. During phase 2, subjects were offered an incentive before performance trials in an attempt to make a learning-versus-performance distinction. Phase 1 results indicated the subjects who viewed a high status model performed better than those viewing a low status model. The lack of any significant cueing effect suggested that model characteristics did not exert their prime influence on the attentional stage of observational learning. There were no group differences during phase 2, suggesting that performance but not actual amount learned was affected by the model status manipulation.

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The Effects of Observing a Learning Model (or Two) on Motor Skill Acquisition

Edward Hebert

, theory suggests that cognition underlies observational learning, and an attempt was made to determine what learners believed they had learned by watching. Self-reports from the learners highlight the nature of information gleaned from the models in this task, specifically the strategies observed that

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Peer-to-Peer Learning: The Impact of Order of Performance on Learning Fundamental Movement Skills Through Video Analysis With Middle School Children

Anna Thacker, Jennifer Ho, Arsalan Khawaja, and Larry Katz

their peers in a P2P model, instead of the passive mimic/practice teaching style, they are actively engaged through observational learning. Observational learning is the ability to learn a motor skill through observation of another individual performing said skill ( Cross et al., 2009 ). Observational

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The Relationships among Skill Level, Age, and Golfers’ Observational Learning Use

Barbi Law and Craig Hall

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of skill level and age on golfers’ (n = 188) use of observational learning for skill, strategy, and performance functions, as assessed by the Functions of Observational Learning Questionnaire. Golf handicap was used as an objective measure of golf skill level, with a lower handicap reflecting a higher skill level. It was hypothesized that both age and skill level would predict observational learning use, with younger and less experienced golfers reporting increased use of all three functions of observational learning. It was also predicted that age and skill level would interact to predict use of the performance function, with younger golfers employing more of that function than older golfers at the same skill level. Partial support was obtained for these hypotheses. Regression analyses revealed that the interaction of age and skill level predicted use of the skill function. Younger golfers employed more of the skill function than older golfers; however this discrepancy increased as skill level decreased. Age, and not skill level, was a significant predictor of golfers’ use of both the strategy and performance functions, with younger golfers employing more of these functions than older golfers. These results suggest that age-related factors may have a greater impact than skill-related factors on observational learning use across the lifespan.

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Developmental and Psychological Factors Related to Children’s Observational Learning of Physical Skills

Maureen R. Weiss, Vicki Ebbeck, and Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal

Visual demonstrations have long been regarded as a critical instructional method for children’s motor skill and social-emotional development. Despite their widespread importance, skill demonstrations have often been characterized by a failure to consider age related differences in children’s cognitive and physical abilities. Similarly, the potential psychological effects of modeling on children’s behaviors in the physical domain have rarely been discussed. Thus the purpose of this paper is to review theoretical and research perspectives from the motor behavior and psychology literatures about developmental and psychological factors associated with children’s modeling of motor skills. Specifically, this paper will emphasize (a) how children perceive characteristics of a visual demonstration, (b) how they translate perceptions to actions that attempt to match the skill demonstration, and (c) how observational learning can be used to enhance self-confidence and motivation in youth. Practical implications for maximizing motor skill and psychosocial development in children are addressed in each section of the paper.

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Further Validation and Development of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire

Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming, Nikos Ntoumanis, Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Richard Ramsey, and Craig Hall

This research validated and extended the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997). Study 1 (N = 400) examined the MIQ-R’s factor structure via multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis. The questionnaire was then modified in Study 2 (N = 370) to separately assess the ease of imaging external visual imagery and internal visual imagery, as well as kinesthetic imagery (termed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3; MIQ-3). Both Studies 1 and 2 found that a correlated-traits correlated-uniqueness model provided the best fit to the data, while displaying gender invariance and no significant differences in latent mean scores across gender. Study 3 (N = 97) demonstrated the MIQ-3’s predictive validity revealing the relationships between imagery ability and observational learning use. Findings highlight the method effects that occur by assessing each type of imagery ability using the same four movements and demonstrate that better imagers report greater use of observational learning.

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The Effects of Self-Observation When Combined With a Skilled Model on the Learning of Gymnastics Skills

Rebecca Robertson, Laura St. Germain, and Diane M. Ste-Marie

, 1055 – 1063 . PubMed doi:10.1080/02640410500432243 10.1080/02640410500432243 Blandin , Y. , & Proteau , L. ( 2000 ). On the cognitive basis of observational learning: Development of mechanisms for the detection and correction of errors . The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A, 53

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Utilizing the Variability of Practice in Physical Execution, Action Observation, and Motor Imagery: Similar or Dissimilar Mechanisms?

Davoud Fazeli, HamidReza Taheri, and Alireza Saberi Kakhki

/observationally performed/observed the task in a random or constant order. A subsequent transfer test showed the superiority of variable practice over constant practice during observational learning ( Bird & Rikli, 1983 ). Besides, superior learning of variable practice compared with constant practice has been shown in

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Turn-Taking and Concurrent Dyad Practice Aid Efficiency but not Effectiveness of Motor Learning in a Balance-Related Task

April Karlinsky and Nicola J. Hodges

, W. , Jr. , & Fein , E.C. , Jr. ( 2003 ). Dyadic protocols, observational learning, and the acquisition of complex skills . Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 47th Annual Meeting 47 ( 19 ), 2050 – 2053 . 10.1177/154193120304701908 Deci , E.L. , & Ryan , R.M. ( n