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Joshua Gold and Joseph Ciorciari

processing time available after a ball’s release, as the majority of the decisions about the ball’s trajectory need to be based prior to this event ( McLeod, 1987 ). Sport scientists have developed a variety of occlusion tasks in which subjects view an opponent’s action and categorize the action (e

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Lilly H. VanDeMark, Christina B. Vander Vegt, Cassie B. Ford, Jason P. Mihalik, and Erik A. Wikstrom

measures of postural control during double-limb stance with varying levels of visual occlusion in a heterogeneous sample of those with and without CAI. We hypothesized that worse spatiotemporal postural control outcomes (ie, shorter time-to-boundary) would be exhibited during balance conditions with any

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Scott Cocking, Mathew G. Wilson, David Nichols, N. Timothy Cable, Daniel J. Green, Dick H. J. Thijssen, and Helen Jones

“traditional” IPC protocol consists of 3 × 5- or 4 × 5-minute bouts of occlusion. More recently, studies have separately employed alternative IPC protocols (altering the number of IPC cycles, tissue occlusion area, and cuff location) with the aim of observing greater performance and clinical outcomes. There

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Sarah J. Willis, Grégoire P. Millet, and Fabio Borrani

During conditions of systemic hypoxia and/or ischemia via vascular occlusion (blood flow restriction, BFR), there is reduced oxygen availability. The different intrinsic vascular mechanisms of hypoxia-induced compensatory vasodilation 1 or BFR-induced increased vascular resistance 2 may influence

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Brian Killinger, Jakob D. Lauver, Luke Donovan, and John Goetschius

exercises for both conditions, but not inflated for the control condition. During the BFR condition, the cuff was inflated to 80% 17 of the participant’s limb occlusion pressure. Participant’s limb occlusion pressure, the pressure necessary to achieve full blood flow occlusion, was determined prior to the

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Michael Burkhardt, Erin Burkholder, and John Goetschius

%–80% arterial occlusion pressure; and restriction time: 5–10 min per exercise with reperfusion between). 21 We used participants’ CAI ankle for testing. If the patient reported bilateral CAI, we used the most dysfunctional ankle as self-reported by the participant for testing. All participants completed the

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Zhen Zeng, Christoph Centner, Albert Gollhofer, and Daniel König

completely occlude arterial blood flow (arterial occlusion pressure [AOP]). The most frequently applied method to determine blood flow and thus AOP is the Doppler ultrasound (DU) technique. However, despite its high accuracy, the practicability of this gold-standard method 16 , 17 is limited, mainly owing

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Mickaël Begon and Patrick Lacouture

A marker has to be seen by at least two cameras for its three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction, and the accuracy can be improved with more cameras. However, a change in the set of cameras used in the reconstruction can alter the kinematics. The purpose of this study was to quantify the harmful effect of occlusions on two-dimensional (2-D) images and to make recommendations about the signal processing. A reference kinematics data set was collected for a three degree-of-freedom linkage with three cameras of a commercial motion analysis system without any occlusion on the 2-D images. In the 2-D images, some occlusions were artificially created based on trials of real cyclic motions. An interpolation of 2-D trajectories before the 3-D reconstruction and two filters (Savitsky–Golay and Butterworth filters) after reconstruction were successively applied to minimize the effect of the 2-D occlusions. The filter parameters were optimized by minimizing the root mean square error between the reference and the filtered data. The optimal parameters of the filters were marker dependent, whereas no filter was necessary after a 2-D interpolation. As the occlusions cause systematic error in the 3-D reconstruction, the interpolation of the 2-D trajectories is more appropriate than filtering the 3-D trajectories.

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Sonia Julià-Sánchez, Jesús Álvarez-Herms, Hannes Gatterer, Martin Burtscher, Teresa Pagès, and Ginés Viscor

Contradictory results are still reported on the influence of dental occlusion on the balance control. We attempted to determine whether there are differences in balance between opposed dental occlusion (Intercuspal position (ICP)/“Cotton rolls” mandibular position [CR]) for two extreme levels of stability (stable/unstable). Twenty-five subjects were monitored under both dental occlusion and level of stability conditions using an unstable platform Balance System SD. The resulting stability index suggests that body balance is significantly better when dental occlusion is set in CR (p < .001) in unstable but not in stable conditions. Occlusal traits significantly influencing postural control were Angle Class (p < .001), crowding (p = .006), midline deviation (p < .001), crossbite (p < .001), anterior open bite (p = .05), and overjet (p = .01). It could be concluded that the sensory information linked to the dental occlusion for the balance control comes strongly into effect in unstable conditions.

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Mathias T. Vangsoe, Jonas K. Nielsen, and Carl D. Paton

design overview of 4 trials: IPC, PAP, CON, and SELF (N = 12). Gray boxes represent 5-minute occlusion at 200 mm Hg, followed by 5 minutes of reperfusion (white boxes). CON indicates control; IPC, ischemic preconditioning; PAP, postactivation potentiation; SELF, self-selected; TT, time trial. Performance