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Amy E. Burton, Louise Clancy and Lisa Cowap

, with outcome measures gauging effectiveness on physical activity or quality of life for older people with sight loss, have been conducted ( Skelton et al., 2013 ). However, the limited evidence available suggests that opportunity to be involved in organized, supportive community walking activities may

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Elissa Burton, Gill Lewin and Duncan Boldy

The proportion of older people living in our communities is rising and, to live independently, some require assistance from home care services. Physical activity can improve and maintain function, strength, and balance, which are important for those receiving home care. This study reviewed the evidence on physical activity/exercise interventions trialed with older people receiving a home care service. A systematic review of studies published from January 1982 to September 2012, from five databases, was undertaken. Inclusion criteria were: aged 65+ years; community dwelling; no dementia diagnosis; receiving home care services; and a physical activity/exercise program. Eight articles were included and results show there were few consistencies between intervention types, groups, outcome measures, and follow-up. Study quality was mixed. Future studies should include pragmatic randomized controlled trials involving home care practitioners and their clients to gain “real-world” knowledge of what interventions are effective and can be delivered within this setting.

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Paige M. Watkins, Elissa Burton and Anne-Marie Hill

care system. Older people are living longer and are more likely to be living with chronic disease (such as Type 2 diabetes) than younger people ( Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2014a , 2014b ). A decline in physical function, increased loss of lean muscle mass, and a deterioration in bone

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Juliana S. Oliveira, Leanne Hassett, Catherine Sherrington, Elisabeth Ramsay, Catherine Kirkham, Shona Manning and Anne Tiedemann

The global pandemic of physical inactivity is a major risk for morbidity and mortality and contributes to the development and progression of noncommunicable diseases ( Ding et al., 2016 ; Kohl et al., 2012 ). The highest risk group for inactivity is older people, with the most inactive group being

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Juliana Hotta Ansai, Larissa Pires de Andrade, Paulo Giusti Rossi, Theresa Helissa Nakagawa, Francisco Assis Carvalho Vale and José Rubens Rebelatto

kinematic and kinetic variables that can affect postural control. In this sense, some studies subdivided TUGT in subtasks (sit-to-stand, walking forward, turn, walking back, and turn-to-sit) in older people with different disorders ( Galán-Mercant & Cuesta-Vargas, 2014 ; Higashi, Yamakoshi, Fujimoto

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Pedro Lopez, Mikel Izquierdo, Regis Radaelli, Graciele Sbruzzi, Rafael Grazioli, Ronei Silveira Pinto and Eduardo Lusa Cadore

integrated care for older people, including clinical manifestations of the declines in physical and mental capacities as strong predictors of mortality and dependence in older age. Therefore, multidimensional interventions must be conducted to manage intrinsic capacity, focusing on impaired activities

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Daniël M. van Leeuwen, Fabian van de Bunt, Cornelis J. de Ruiter, Natasja M. van Schoor, Dorly J.H. Deeg and Kaj S. Emanuel

.e., endurance). In contrast to voluntary torque, torque elicited by electrical stimulation is unaffected by motivation and pain ( Shield & Zhou, 2004 ). Therefore, using electrically evoked contractions is a reliable way to measure muscle function. This study includes older people with knee OA (K&L 2–4) or

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Tanya Trayers, Debbie A. Lawlor, Kenneth R. Fox, Jo Coulson, Mark Davis, Afroditi Stathi and Tim Peters

Associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) with objectively measured lower limb function in adults age 70 and older were studied. Lower limb function was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and PA by an accelerometer providing mean daily counts per minute (CPM), mean daily steps and minutes of moderate or vigorous PA (MVPA) per day. A minority (32 [13%]) scored low (≤6 out of a maximum of 12) on the SPPB, but only 3 (1%) achieved recommended PA levels. Adjusting for confounders, the odds ratio of low SPPB (≤6) comparing those in the lowest one third to highest two thirds of mean CPM was 55 (95%CI: 6, 520); for mean steps per day it was 23 (95%CI: 4, 137) and for minutes of MVPA per day 56 (95%CI: 6, 530). Low levels of PA are common and are associated with poor levels of lower limb function in older adults.

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Andreas Heissel, Anou Pietrek, Michael A. Rapp, Stephan Heinzel and Geoffrey Williams

Healthy aging plays an important role in times of demographic change, with increasing rates of older people and falling birth rates in western societies. Empirical work demonstrates that regular exercise training can improve physical health (e.g., by decreasing fall rates ( El-Khoury, Cassou

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Denise Rodrigues Bueno, Maria de Fátima Nunes Marucci, Clara Suemi da Costa Rosa, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira Duarte and Maria Lucia Lebão

Physical inactivity is recognized as a public health challenge worldwide due to its associations with a large variety of chronic diseases ( Blair, 2009 ). In older people there is a high prevalence of inadequate physical activity ( Souza, Fillenbaum, & Blay, 2015 ), which is accompanied by a high