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Michael Kirkwood, Sheau-Fen Yap and Yingzi Xu

these social communities, fans communicate information and knowledge, which creates group-specific meanings and facilitates close relationships among members ( Kozinets, 2013 ). The activities and interactions that occur in these online communities are of extreme importance, as these social interactions

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Andrea N. Geurin-Eagleman

Masters sport participation is continually increasing, and although much research has uncovered masters participation motives, it has been noted that an understanding of community among masters athletes was also necessary. Online communities of sport participants have been examined only minimally, with research uncovering correlations between new-media use and sport-participation frequency. Using uses and gratifications theory, this study sought to examine masters gymnastics participants to develop a better understanding of athletes’ use of online communities in relation to their sport participation and examine differences in online community use based on demographics. Online survey results from 164 international participants revealed they used new media primarily for fanship, information, and technical knowledge, and online masters gymnastics communities were most often extensions of in-person training groups and communities. These findings and their implications are discussed in the article.

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Jeffrey P. Carpenter and Stephen Harvey

professional social media use. Third, the mesosystem level involves the larger professional communities relevant to each educator, such as unions, professional associations for their content areas, and online communities of practice (e.g.,  Goodyear et al., 2014 ). For instance, some online educator

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Jeffrey P. Carpenter and Stephen Harvey

://www.ewenger.com/theory/communities_of_practice_intro_WRD.doc Xue , S. , Hu , X. , Chi , X. , & Zhang , J. ( 2019 ). Building an online community of practice through WeChat for teacher professional learning . Professional Development in Education . Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/19415257.2019.1647273 10.1080/19415257.2019.1647273

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John Stoszkowski and Dave Collins

A reflective approach to practice is consistently espoused as a key tool for understanding and enhancing coach learning and raising the vocational standards of coaches. As such, there is a clear need for practical tools and processes that might facilitate the development and measurement of “appropriate” reflective skills. The aim of this preliminary study was to explore the use of online blogs as a tool to support refection and community of practice in a cohort of undergraduate sports coaching students. Twenty-six students (6 females, 20 males) reflected on their coaching practice via blogs created specifically for refection. Blogs were subjected to category and content analysis to identify the focus of entries and to determine both the emergent reflective quality of posts and the extent to which an online community of practice emerged. Findings revealed that descriptive refection exceeded that of a critical nature, however, bloggers exhibited a positive trajectory toward higher order thinking and blogs were an effective platform for supporting tutor-student interaction. Despite the peer discourse features of blogs, collaborative refection was conspicuous by its absence and an online community of practice did not emerge.

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Gerard L. Hanley

A framework to advance and sustain the American Kinesiology Association community's capabilities to put educational innovations into practice through the use of MERLOT's open educational services and resources (www.merlot.org) is presented through the metaphor of a folk tale, Stone Soup. The American Kinesiology Association can use MERLOT's free and open library services to build a quality collection of peer-reviewed instructional materials in kinesiology, design a custom “teaching commons” website for their community to share exemplary practices, use MERLOT Voices online community platform to enable asynchronous discussions and collaborations, and create new open educational resources with MERLOT's Content Builder tool. Leveraging the California State University's Course Redesign with Technology program and the Quality Online Learning and Teaching (QOLT) project can become part of the American Kinesiology Association's strategy as well.

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Richard D. Waters, Kimberly A. Burke, Zachary H. Jackson and Jamie D. Buning

Social-media consultants and strategic communication firms have promoted the use of social media by organizations because of their supposed advantages for developing relationships and online communities around the brand. However, critics have challenged these supportive voices because of organizations’ limited control over the sites’ design and the lack of demonstrated return on investment for social-media endeavors. Using the 26 National Football League (NFL) teams with an official Facebook presence, this study compares how public relations practitioners use the NFL teams’ Web sites and Facebook pages to cultivate relationships with fans using stewardship strategies promoted by public relations literature. Results indicate that the NFL teams overwhelmingly favor their own Web sites for relationship-building endeavors over Facebook for 27 of the study’s 33 measures. Explanations for the divergence from consultants’ advice are discussed and grounded in new-media and sports communication research from various scholarly perspectives.

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Rasmus K. Storm * Ulrik Wagner * 9 2015 8 3 293 312 10.1123/IJSC.2015-0029 Online Communities Among International Masters Gymnastics Participants: A Uses and Gratifications Analysis Andrea N. Geurin-Eagleman * 9 2015 8 3 313 329 10.1123/IJSC.2015-0045 Blurred Lines: An Examination of High School

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.2018-0127 ijsc.2018-0127 Original Research Using Social Media to Estimate the Size and Demographic Characteristics of Hard-to-Reach Sport Communities: The Case of Disc Golf Joshua Woods * 12 1 36 54 10.1123/ijsc.2018-0126 ijsc.2018-0126 An Exploration of Sport Fandom in Online Communities Michael

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William Roth Smith

workouts, saw an uptick in app downloads and subscriptions to the service. As these types of sports can be quantified (i.e., speed, distance traveled, calories burned), they are more amenable to uploading logged activities to online communities for commenting, liking, sharing, and even synchronous group