In 2013, approximately 5.3 million students took an online course in the United States—a 3.7% increase, when compared with 2012. This growth in e-learning may impact sport participation and the educational experience of student-athletes. This change creates various challenges and opportunities for those who support student-athletes’ educational development. Therefore, using the zone for proximal development and scaffolding theory, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the role student-athlete support services staff play in ensuring the effectiveness and quality of e-learning, and to identify strategies and best practices associated with e-learning. Qualitative interviews were conducted with directors of student-athlete support service organizations within Division I athletics. Results of the analysis engendered three central themes: (a) faculty relations, (b) lack of formal assessment, and (c) educational opportunities. The results aligned with the tenets of the zone of proximal development and scaffolding theory. In addition, a framework to assist student-athletes’ development is presented.
Jillian McNiff and Thomas J. Aicher
Sheri J. Brock, Danielle Wadsworth, Nikki Hollett and Mary E. Rudisill
The School of Kinesiology at Auburn University is using Movband Technology to support online learning in their physical activity program. Active Auburn is a 2-hr credit course that encourages students (n = 2,000/year) to become physically active through online instruction and tracking physical activity using Movband technology. Movband technology allows for uploading and monitoring group physical activity data. The implementation of this technology has allowed the School of Kinesiology to: (a) promote physical activity on our campus, (b) serve a large number of students, (c) reduce demand on classroom/physical activity space, and (d) promote our research and outreach scholarship as well, by collecting physical activity profiles for students enrolled in the course. Students report they enjoy the course and that they appreciate the “freedom to exercise” when it best fits into their schedule. This course generates considerable revenue to support course instruction and much more for the School of Kinesiology.
John Miller and David Pierce
Margaret T. Harris and Mike Metzler
Evergreen Education Group provides the most up-to-date national perspective of K-12 online and blended learning; according to their most recent report, all 50 states have some sort of online learning option for students, ranging from single course offerings through brick-and-mortar schools to those offered
J. Michael Martinez and Christopher R. Barnhill
Although scholars have explored sense of community in both online and face-to-face education, there has been little research of this topic in online sport management education. The community of inquiry (CoI) framework focuses on three aspects of overall student engagement in online education: social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence. It is through the interaction of these areas that a community of learning can be developed in online courses, and effective higher levels of learning can be implemented. The purpose of this review is to provide an overall perspective of the CoI framework as a means to enhance the student experience through discussion of social, cognitive, and teaching presence. In addition, implications for practical application in sport management programs and directions for future research of the CoI framework within sport management education will be provided, and related outcomes will be explored.
Christopher Atwater, Jered Borup, Robert Baker and Richard E. West
This qualitative case study examined student perceptions of video communication with their instructor in an online research and writing course for sport and recreation graduate students. All students participated in two personalized Skype video calls with the instructor and received two video and text feedback critiques of their written projects. Eight students were interviewed following the course. Despite minor technological and scheduling concerns, students found that their Skype calls helped form a relationship with their instructor and improved their confidence in the course. Students found that video feedback recordings on their written projects were elaborate and friendly, while text feedback comments tended to be more convenient, efficient, and concise. However, all students reported that the advantages of video feedback outweighed the advantages of text. The article concludes with recommendations for future research and for online instructors who wish to effectively blend these forms of communication.
Kim C. Graber and Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko
The purpose of this article is to provide background information related to the development of the 2014 American Kinesiology Association (AKA) Leadership Workshop titled “The Future of Teaching and Learning in an Online World”. A brief description of online education is provided, along with a synopsis of the advantages and challenges confronting instructors and administrators in institutions of higher education who are increasingly implementing this form of instruction. An overview of the articles included in this special issue is also provided.
R. Douglas Manning, Margaret C. Keiper and Seth E. Jenny
Pedagogical innovation involving smartphone technology paired with complementary applications may offer sport management faculty the opportunity to create an environment of engaging instruction. Technologically enhanced and innovative assignments have the potential to stimulate student interest and critical-thinking skills by presenting new experiences and active learning opportunities via participatory education. Through the discussion of technology integration and pedagogical innovation when teaching millennial students, the purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework—namely, the concerns-based adoption model (CBAM)—to introduce mobile technologies, such as Socrative and Twitter, into the sport management classroom.
Online learning has grown at a rapid pace in the last decade (Allen & Seaman, 2005). The purpose of this paper is to present some of the most recent technologies associated with online coaching education in academic settings. The effectiveness of the online learning environment is controversial (USDOE, 2009; Jaggars & Bailey, 2010). Therefore, it is critical to examine strategies that can be used to ensure learning outcomes. A series of tips for online educators are offered. Multiple tools for educators, including blogs, wikis, Google Cloud, instant messaging and YouTube are discussed in relation to possible course assignments within a coaching education curriculum. The paper concludes with a few suggestions for educating large groups.
Gi-Yong Koo, Sara Shoffner and Jeeheon Ryu
The purpose of this study was to investigate how an animated pedagogical agent (APA) affected an individual’s level of situational interest (SI) using a case study in online education. Although online learning has become popular, the lack of social cues for students in distance-learning contexts has been suggested as problematic. APA has been conceptualized to support social agency theory between students and learning contents. SI has been considered to activate student’s immediate affective response to engage in an authentic learning context. The study examined the effect of APA in a case study on triggered-SI and maintained-SI to determine the benefits of multimedia-based instruction in online learning. A three-factor model including triggered-SI, maintained-SI-feeling, and maintained-SI-value was tested. Results revealed that the use of APA in a case study more positively stimulated students’ SI specific to triggered-SI and maintained-SI-value. Therefore, the implementation of the APA in a distance education setting could benefit students’ learning and also help educators to more effectively deliver a variety of sport management content areas.