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Sean R. Sadri

The current study examined how article source, medium, and fan identification can all affect the credibility of sports articles. An online experiment was conducted, and participants read an article that was indicated to have originated from a mainstream sports Web site, a sports blog, a social-networking site, or a wire service. Analysis revealed that fan-identification level was an important factor in credibility ratings in which highly identified fans found sports articles to be significantly more credible than fans with low identification. Highly identified fans also rated the article as equally credible on all 3 Web sites. However, low-identification fans rated the mainstream sports Web site article as significantly more credible than the other 2. Article medium was not shown to have a significant influence on perceived credibility for either identification group. The implications of fan-identification level on the discrepancies in ratings of perceived credibility are explored.

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Travis R. Bell and Karen L. Hartman

In March 2016 the highest-paid women’s athlete, Maria Sharapova, called a press conference to announce a failed drug test. Sharapova relied on the crisis communication strategy of stealing thunder to present the information to media and break the story. The authors analyze how the press conference and her strategy were portrayed in traditional and online media and how Sharapova promoted and broadcast the press conference to defend herself. Using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) software and textual analysis, the authors argue that Sharapova’s use of the stealing-thunder strategy successfully influenced media narratives about her suspension and should be considered by athletes in crisis situations.

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Robin Hardin, Gi-Yong Koo, Brody Ruihley, Stephen W. Dittmore, and Michael McGreevey

The growth of the Web has had a tremendous impact on how information is disseminated and shared about sports. Research has shown that consumers use media to satisfy a variety of needs and desires, has examined online sport media consumption, and the use of online sport media. But there has been no examination of the motivating factors behind subscription based online media, in particular, paid content sites and message boards. This study explored the relationships of motives, perceived value, and hours in usage per week. Five motives were verified through a confirmatory factor analysis. An examination of the usage characteristics of the respondents demonstrates a loyal and active user. This is important for the site administrators in that the subscribers are using the site as a “go to” destination and not merely something to peruse during their leisure time. The site is acting as an entry point onto the Web.

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David Cassilo and Jimmy Sanderson

Many professional sport franchises have undergone shifts in talent evaluation strategies by moving to analytic and data-driven approaches. However, National Football League (NFL) franchises have been resistant to fully embrace the analytical model, as NFL organizational management structures tend to be isomorphic. In 2016, the Cleveland Browns initiated an ideological break from this system by hiring “moneyball” guru Paul DePodesta, a move that signaled a shift to an analytics-based model in organizational management. A textual analysis of 120 online media articles was carried out to determine how media reports framed this philosophical shift. Results revealed that frames predominantly portrayed analytics as being in direct opposition to normalized operational structures in the NFL. The results illustrate how difficult it is to change the discourse and embrace new management ideas that are perceived to contrast with dominant ideologies.

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Joe J. Phua

Research on sports fans has demonstrated a positive relationship between fan identification and self-esteem. The current investigation extended previous research by testing media use as a moderator. The author hypothesized that media use would be positively associated with measures of fan identification and collective self-esteem and also moderate the relationship between these 2 variables. This is because media use enhances positive distinctiveness for fans of sports teams, leading to higher collective self-esteem levels because of the ability to get up-to-date information about the team or player they support. Data gathered from student fans (N = 203) of a major U.S. west coast university football team confirmed the author’s expectations that sports fans’ use of 4 types of media—print, broadcast, online, and mobile phones—moderated the relationship between fan identification and collective self-esteem, with online media having the greatest impact on this relationship.

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Bo Li, Olan K.M. Scott, Stirling Sharpe, Qingru Xu, and Michael Naraine

, therefore, was to examine how Australian and Chinese media framed the conflict between Sun and Horton through analyzing the content of traditional media (i.e., newspapers, news agencies) and online media (i.e., websites) in both nations. Literature Review Framing in Sport Reporting Developed by Goffman

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Elaine Chiao Ling Yang, Michelle Hayes, Jinyan Chen, Caroline Riot, and Catheryn Khoo-Lattimore

Athletes on Social Media The advent of online media has provided a dynamic space for reporting sports ( Litchfield & Kavanagh, 2019 ). As technology develops, sports organizations and broadcasting companies have increasingly utilized new media, such as social media platforms, to connect with their audience

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Qingru Xu and Peggy J. Kreshel

addition to her athletic performance, Chinese online media enthusiastically emphasized her role as a wife and future mother. Her marriage, as well as her husband, frequently entered into her media narrative. When Li Na won the Daphne Cup at the 2014 Australian Open, instead of presenting the victory as an

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Samuel M. Clevenger, Oliver Rick, and Jacob Bustad

, the pandemic renews attention to the longstanding presence of nonhuman actors in spaces of human activity. A quick search of recent online media articles reveals stories of endangered species thriving in environments deserted by humans, wildlife entering urban areas, and rodents adapting to changes in

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Sungwook Son, Antonio S. Williams, and Yoon Heo

their homes. Every press release, official statement, or promotional information is distributed via digital media platforms. In addition, through numerous online media channels owned by the franchise, we aim to create various types of novel content, such as card news or infographics. Sport PR channels