This investigation tested the proposal that a “highly accurate” and temporally unstable stored target representation is available to the motor system for the online control of memory-guided reaches. Participants reached to a target that was: (a) visible during the response, (b) extinguished at movement onset, and (c) occluded for 0, 500, 1500 and 2,500 ms in advance of response cueing. Additionally, trials were performed with (i.e., limb visible) and without (i.e., limb occluded) vision of the reaching limb. Results showed that limb occluded trials undershot the target location in each target condition, and were characterized by a primarily offline mode of control. In contrast, limb visible trials showed a consistent level of endpoint accuracy for each target condition and elicited more online reaching corrections than limb occluded trials. It is therefore proposed that a reasonably accurate and temporally stable stored target representation can be combined with vision of the moving limb for the online control of memory-guided reaches.
Margaret T. Harris and Mike Metzler
Online Education Online education is one of the fastest growing trends in K-12 education today, evidenced by its expansion across the United States as well as the growth of literature and research in this area ( Gemin, Pape, Vashaw, & Watson, 2015 ; Means, Toyama, Murphy, & Bakia, 2013 ). The
Michael Kirkwood, Sheau-Fen Yap and Yingzi Xu
In the sporting arena, the consumption of sport is increasingly moving to the online realm. Online social networks have facilitated extensive interactions and collaborative consumption activities among like-minded fans, leading to the creation of online sport-fan communities ( Hedlund, 2014 ). In
Online learning has grown at a rapid pace in the last decade (Allen & Seaman, 2005). The purpose of this paper is to present some of the most recent technologies associated with online coaching education in academic settings. The effectiveness of the online learning environment is controversial (USDOE, 2009; Jaggars & Bailey, 2010). Therefore, it is critical to examine strategies that can be used to ensure learning outcomes. A series of tips for online educators are offered. Multiple tools for educators, including blogs, wikis, Google Cloud, instant messaging and YouTube are discussed in relation to possible course assignments within a coaching education curriculum. The paper concludes with a few suggestions for educating large groups.
John de Grosbois and Luc Tremblay
The identification, measurement, and quantification of online feedback use during goal-directed movements have been a goal in the field of motor control at least since the pioneering work of Woodworth ( 1899 ). Changes in the theoretical understanding of online control processes (e.g., Elliott et
Gi-Yong Koo, Sara Shoffner and Jeeheon Ryu
The purpose of this study was to investigate how an animated pedagogical agent (APA) affected an individual’s level of situational interest (SI) using a case study in online education. Although online learning has become popular, the lack of social cues for students in distance-learning contexts has been suggested as problematic. APA has been conceptualized to support social agency theory between students and learning contents. SI has been considered to activate student’s immediate affective response to engage in an authentic learning context. The study examined the effect of APA in a case study on triggered-SI and maintained-SI to determine the benefits of multimedia-based instruction in online learning. A three-factor model including triggered-SI, maintained-SI-feeling, and maintained-SI-value was tested. Results revealed that the use of APA in a case study more positively stimulated students’ SI specific to triggered-SI and maintained-SI-value. Therefore, the implementation of the APA in a distance education setting could benefit students’ learning and also help educators to more effectively deliver a variety of sport management content areas.
Chad M. Killian, Christopher J. Kinder and Amelia Mays Woods
learning opportunities in physical education and promote quality instruction. Online-based instruction is emerging as a popular instructional delivery method in the K–12 classroom context as a means to address common educational barriers ( Cavanaugh, Barbour, & Clark, 2009 ) and expand learning
Jennifer Campbell, Stephanie Rossit and Matthew Heath
, Frank, & Quinn, 1979 ), and would therefore not gauge a possible loVF advantage for online control. As such, the IDs employed by Binsted and Heath entailed movement environments that spanned reaches controlled primarily by central planning mechanisms (i.e., ID = 1.5 bits) and those requiring online
The proliferation of online courses and programs has impacted kinesiology programs across the country. The process of providing online instruction, while popular with students, is often daunting to the kinesiology programs that must navigate this process. Recommendations for transitioning courses and programs from face-to-face to online are offered from both the faculty and administrative perspective. Maintaining academic rigor in online kinesiology courses and program is also essential to the dialogue and for ensuring success. Many kinesiology courses and programs are well suited for online delivery and demand for these programs is high. Kinesiology faculty and administrators should understand both the facilitators and barriers to online implementation.
Miranda J. Menaspà, Paolo Menaspà, Sally A. Clark and Maurizio Fanchini
association with the increasing availability of new technologies (ie, smartphones and tablets), require and promote the use of online methods to collect training load data. 22 , 23 For example, the Australian Institute of Sport has adopted an online platform called athlete management system (AMS) to record