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Michael Kirkwood, Sheau-Fen Yap, and Yingzi Xu

these social communities, fans communicate information and knowledge, which creates group-specific meanings and facilitates close relationships among members ( Kozinets, 2013 ). The activities and interactions that occur in these online communities are of extreme importance, as these social interactions

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Andrea N. Geurin-Eagleman

Masters sport participation is continually increasing, and although much research has uncovered masters participation motives, it has been noted that an understanding of community among masters athletes was also necessary. Online communities of sport participants have been examined only minimally, with research uncovering correlations between new-media use and sport-participation frequency. Using uses and gratifications theory, this study sought to examine masters gymnastics participants to develop a better understanding of athletes’ use of online communities in relation to their sport participation and examine differences in online community use based on demographics. Online survey results from 164 international participants revealed they used new media primarily for fanship, information, and technical knowledge, and online masters gymnastics communities were most often extensions of in-person training groups and communities. These findings and their implications are discussed in the article.

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Gerard L. Hanley

A framework to advance and sustain the American Kinesiology Association community's capabilities to put educational innovations into practice through the use of MERLOT's open educational services and resources ( is presented through the metaphor of a folk tale, Stone Soup. The American Kinesiology Association can use MERLOT's free and open library services to build a quality collection of peer-reviewed instructional materials in kinesiology, design a custom “teaching commons” website for their community to share exemplary practices, use MERLOT Voices online community platform to enable asynchronous discussions and collaborations, and create new open educational resources with MERLOT's Content Builder tool. Leveraging the California State University's Course Redesign with Technology program and the Quality Online Learning and Teaching (QOLT) project can become part of the American Kinesiology Association's strategy as well.

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John Stoszkowski and Dave Collins

A reflective approach to practice is consistently espoused as a key tool for understanding and enhancing coach learning and raising the vocational standards of coaches. As such, there is a clear need for practical tools and processes that might facilitate the development and measurement of “appropriate” reflective skills. The aim of this preliminary study was to explore the use of online blogs as a tool to support refection and community of practice in a cohort of undergraduate sports coaching students. Twenty-six students (6 females, 20 males) reflected on their coaching practice via blogs created specifically for refection. Blogs were subjected to category and content analysis to identify the focus of entries and to determine both the emergent reflective quality of posts and the extent to which an online community of practice emerged. Findings revealed that descriptive refection exceeded that of a critical nature, however, bloggers exhibited a positive trajectory toward higher order thinking and blogs were an effective platform for supporting tutor-student interaction. Despite the peer discourse features of blogs, collaborative refection was conspicuous by its absence and an online community of practice did not emerge.

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Richard D. Waters, Kimberly A. Burke, Zachary H. Jackson, and Jamie D. Buning

Social-media consultants and strategic communication firms have promoted the use of social media by organizations because of their supposed advantages for developing relationships and online communities around the brand. However, critics have challenged these supportive voices because of organizations’ limited control over the sites’ design and the lack of demonstrated return on investment for social-media endeavors. Using the 26 National Football League (NFL) teams with an official Facebook presence, this study compares how public relations practitioners use the NFL teams’ Web sites and Facebook pages to cultivate relationships with fans using stewardship strategies promoted by public relations literature. Results indicate that the NFL teams overwhelmingly favor their own Web sites for relationship-building endeavors over Facebook for 27 of the study’s 33 measures. Explanations for the divergence from consultants’ advice are discussed and grounded in new-media and sports communication research from various scholarly perspectives.

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Kelly Evans

). These two specific chapters appear later in the textbook rather than setting a foundation to build from. Notable Chapters The chapters discussed in this section were deemed notable due to quality, uniqueness, and diversity of content provided. Chapter 3—Online Communities in Sport The combination of

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William Roth Smith

workouts, saw an uptick in app downloads and subscriptions to the service. As these types of sports can be quantified (i.e., speed, distance traveled, calories burned), they are more amenable to uploading logged activities to online communities for commenting, liking, sharing, and even synchronous group

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Collin C. Brooks and Jaimie M. McMullen

). The SoC framework was chosen as the theoretical framework to guide this study because of its emphasis on understanding the experiences of members of the community and because it has been previously used to study online communities (e.g.,  Mamonov, Koufaris, & Benbunan-Fich, 2016 ; Paton & Irons, 2016

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James Bingaman

prevalence and facilitation of uncivil and racial discourse. To the third and final point, the results highlight that vitriolic discourse surrounding Native American imagery in sports remains an issue ( Billings & Black, 2018 ; Steinfeldt et al., 2010 ), even among “neutral” online communities that can be

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Ashley N. Weingartz and Stacy Warner

recognized that building a strong online community would require little to no financial investment for GLL, but would likely result in enhanced communication, fundraising, and fan engagement. Allyson was nervous because she needed to convince GLL administrators, with no practical social media experience