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Anthropometric Profiles of Elite Open-Water Swimmers

Gregory Shaw and Iñigo Mujika

Open-water (OW) 10-km marathon swim was introduced in the Olympics in 2008. Since then, pool swimmers have begun competing in OW disciplines, with successful swimmers often having high pool speeds and pool success prior to OW success. OW swimmers have traditionally been described as shorter and

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Characteristics and Challenges of Open-Water Swimming Performance: A Review

Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo, and Maria Francesca Piacentini

FINA (Fédération Internationale de Natation) defines open-water swimming (OWS) as any competition that takes place in rivers, lakes, oceans, or water channels. 1 Three distances, 5 km, 10 km, and 25 km (conventional races), are present in World and European championships, while only the 10 km is

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Effect of the Pacing Strategies on the Open-Water 10-km World Swimming Championships Performances

Luis Rodriguez and Santiago Veiga

Open water swimming events have become much more popular since the 10-km races were included in the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing. As a result, the number of open water competitions and international swimmers competing in those events has notably increased. 1 For example, the number of

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Pacing and Hazard Score of Elite Open Water Swimmers During a 5-km Indoor Pool Race

Roberto Baldassarre, Cristian Ieno, Marco Bonifazi, and Maria Francesca Piacentini

. 3 Nevertheless, there is still scarcity of data analyzing pacing strategies in swimmers, more specifically, open water swimmers (OW-swimmers). 4 For endurance competitions, it seems that athletes will benefit from an even or a negative pacing strategy 5 ; however, tactical reasons may cause

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The Road to Rio: A Brief Report of Training-Load Distribution of Open-Water Swimmers During the Olympic Season

Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Romain Meeusen, and Maria Francesca Piacentini

Most models of training distribution in endurance events in literature present data on runners, cyclists, rowers, or skiers, indicating that the majority of training is performed at low intensities with only 20% performed at high intensities. 1 , 2 Open-water swimming (OWS) is an outdoor endurance

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Risk Factors and Predictors of Hypothermia and Dropouts During Open-Water Swimming Competitions

Joffrey Drigny, Marine Rolland, Robin Pla, Christophe Chesneau, Tess Lebreton, Benjamin Marais, Pierre Outin, Sébastien Moussay, Sébastien Racinais, and Benoit Mauvieux

Open-water swimming (OWS) characterizes any swimming competition in rivers, lakes, oceans, or water channels. The 25-km OWS requires ∼5 hours of swimming during which swimmers must cope with various environmental and physiological parameters (water temperature, race strategies, etc) that may lead

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Monitoring Rating of Perceived Exertion Time in Zone: A Novel Method to Quantify Training Load in Elite Open-Water Swimmers?

Cristian Ieno, Roberto Baldassarre, Maddalena Pennacchi, Antonio La Torre, Marco Bonifazi, and Maria Francesca Piacentini

, depending on training volume and mode of locomotion. Open water swimmers (OW swimmers) normally swim about 80 km a week 6 and include a long warm-up and technical drills in their training session. Therefore, given the higher training volume and energy cost of swimming compared with ground disciplines, 7

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Nutrition Considerations for Open-Water Swimming

Gregory Shaw, Anu Koivisto, David Gerrard, and Louise M. Burke

Open-water swimming (OWS) is a rapidly developing discipline. Events of 5–25 km are featured at FINA World Championships, and the international circuit includes races of 5–88 km. The Olympic OWS event, introduced in 2008, is contested over 10 km. Differing venues present changing environmental conditions, including water and ambient temperatures, humidity, solar radiation, and unpredictable tides. Furthermore, the duration of most OWS events (1–6 hr) creates unique physiological challenges to thermoregulation, hydration status, and muscle fuel stores. Current nutrition recommendations for open-water training and competition are either an extension of recommendations from pool swimming or are extrapolated from other athletic populations with similar physiological requirements. Competition nutrition should focus on optimizing prerace hydration and glycogen stores. Although swimmers should rely on self-supplied fuel and fluid sources for shorter events, for races of 10 km or greater, fluid and fuel replacement can occur from feeding pontoons when tactically appropriate. Over the longer races, feeding pontoons should be used to achieve desirable targets of up to 90 g/hr of carbohydrates from multitransportable sources. Exposure to variable water and ambient temperatures will play a significant role in determining race nutrition strategies. For example, in extreme environments, thermoregulation may be assisted by manipulating the temperature of the ingested fluids. Swimmers are encouraged to work with nutrition experts to develop effective and efficient strategies that enhance performance through appropriate in-competition nutrition.

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Case Study: Comparison of Swimsuits and Wetsuits Through Biomechanics and Energetics in Elite Female Open Water Swimmers

Rodrigo Zacca, Bruno Mezêncio, Flávio A. de Souza Castro, Fábio Y. Nakamura, David B. Pyne, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, and Ricardo J. Fernandes

Open water (OW) swimming has been included at Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) World Championships in 1991, with the 5-, 10-, and 25-km as regular individual events. The 10-km has been the Olympic Marathon OW event since 2008 ( The FINA rules allow 2 types of

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Thermal Sensation After the 10-km Open-Water Swimming in Cool Water Depends on the Skin’s Thermal Sensitivity Rather Than Core Temperature

Tomomi Fujimoto, Yuiko Matsuura, Yasuhiro Baba, and Reira Hara

Open-water swimming (OWS), a sport that takes place in oceans, lakes, rivers, and channels, is enjoyed by a variety of populations, from recreational to official Olympic events (10 km). The official races are performed under a wide range of water temperatures ( T w : 16–31 °C), 1 and the