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Niek Pot, Margaret E. Whitehead and Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers

, 2010 ). Therefore, the aim of this article is to give an overview of the philosophical foundations of physical literacy and discuss how philosophy can indeed be operationalized in practice, with an emphasis on physical education practice. Concept of Literacy and Philosophies Underpinning Physical

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Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers and Margaret E. Whitehead

to clarifying the concept and research in practice. Such research is required to catalyze the operationalization process of physical literacy from theory into practice within a variety of industries and fields. This special issue aims to add clarity in relation to what physical literacy is and what

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Chelsee A. Shortt, Collin A. Webster, Richard J. Keegan, Cate A. Egan and Ali S. Brian

( Corbin, 2016 ). Toward this end, the current study set out to operationally conceptualize PL for subsequent development of an assessment tool for individuals and physical education practitioners within the United States ( Longmuir & Tremblay, 2016 ). In the United States, SHAPE America adopted PL as the

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Lowri C. Edwards, Anna S. Bryant, Kevin Morgan, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Anwen M. Jones and Richard J. Keegan

, practitioners should be aware of the key foundations that underpin the philosophy of physical literacy in order further understand how to operationalize the concept in practice ( Shearer et al., 2018 ). Even so, there have been many debates around how best to operationalize the complex, multifaceted, and

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Mary Steinhardt, Dolly Lambdin, Mary Kamrath and Teresita Ramirez

This study examined the congruence of time usage in the areas of motor skill and physical fitness among three curriculum perspectives: the intentional (teacher’s ideal curriculum), the perceived (teacher’s recall), and the operational (observations by an outsider). Data were collected on 5 randomly selected days for each of 6 student teachers and were summarized in percent time per week for fitness instruction, skill instruction, motor skill activity, physical fitness activity, and nonactivity. Results revealed that skill and fitness activities were present in the existing curriculum as described from each perspective. However, the actual curriculum taught as perceived by the student teachers differed from the curriculum they ideally intended to teach. Student teachers varied in the accuracy of their perceptions of what occurred during class. In general, the curriculum as observed by the investigators differed from both the intentional and perceived domains. Reasons are proposed, but questions remain as to how the intentional domain is developed and why the three domains (perceived, operational, and intentional) are different.

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Victor E.D. Pinheiro and Herbert A. Simon

The ability to diagnose motor skills is one of the most important competences of a teacher of physical education and sport. Teacher education programs fall short of providing prospective teachers with courses in motor skill diagnosis. To be successful, any effort to teach it must rest on a sound conceptual framework or model. This article provides the theoretical framework for adapting information-processing theory, a widely accepted theory of human thinking, to modeling diagnostic thought processes. It describes specifically the three components of the model: acquisition, cue interpretation, and diagnostic decision. The findings from the model provide a foundation upon which to build instructional strategies for developing diagnostic competence.

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Scott Strath, Raymond Isaacs and Michael J. Greenwald

This qualitative study describes environmental supports and barriers to physical activity in an older adult sample drawn from low- and high-walkable neighborhoods. Thirty-seven individuals age 55 and over were recruited and answered open-ended survey questions, with a subsample invited back to partake in a semistructured interview. Content analysis identified categories and themes linking perceptions of neighborhood-environment characteristics to activity. Emerging categories and themes did not differ across neighborhood walkability, so results are presented for both groups combined. Infrastructure was the most common category identified to encourage activity, specifically, well-maintained sidewalks, bike paths or lanes, and traffic control. Other categories of land use, landscape, and aesthetics were reported. Poorly maintained or missing sidewalks, crosswalks, bike paths or lanes, and traffic safety were categories that discouraged activity. In conclusion, the information obtained is helpful in solidifying which environmental characteristics are important to measure as they relate to activity behavior in an older adult population.

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Catherine D. Ennis

This research was conducted to investigate the role of value orientations in effective elementary physical educators’ curricular decision making. Educational value orientations served as the theoretical base for the research. Three research questions were examined: (a) what were the learning goals and expectations for student performance in each program, (b) why did teachers value these goals, and (c) how well did students understand the goals and expectations of the program? Data were collected through class observations, teacher and student interviews, and the Value Orientation Inventory. Data were analyzed using constant comparison. Results described students’ learning goals and academic and social performance expectations within each teacher’s value profile. Dynamical systems theory was used to elaborate the influence of value orientations in the curriculum decision-making process.

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Anne Vernez Moudon, Chanam Lee, Allen D. Cheadle, Cheza Garvin, Donna Johnson, Thomas L. Schmid, Robert D. Weathers and Lin Lin

Background:

The concept of walkable neighborhoods is increasingly important in physical activity research and intervention. However, limited theoretical understanding and measurable definitions remain a challenge.

Methods:

This paper reviews theories defining neighborhoods and offers an empirical approach to identify measurable attributes and thresholds of walkable neighborhoods. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used for self-reported socio-demographic background, neighborhood walking behavior and perception, and objective measures of environments.

Results:

Environmental attributes positively associated with walking sufficiently to meet health recommendations included higher residential density and smaller street-blocks around home, and shorter distances to food and daily retail facilities from home. Threshold distances for eating/drinking establishments and grocery stores were 860 and 1445 feet.

Conclusions:

Results questioned theoretical constructs of neighborhoods centered on recreation and educational uses. They pointed to finer mixes of uses than those characterizing suburban neighborhoods, and small spatial units of analysis and intervention to capture and promote neighborhood walkability.