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Jessica Ross and Peter D. MacIntyre

challenge also increases to maintain an optimal balance. Thus, flow is not only an experience that leads to individuals reporting happier, more meaningful lives, but it can also be seen as an optimal state for learning and skill improvement to occur ( Csikszentmihalyi, 1975 , 1990 ). Optimal experience

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Susan A. Jackson and Herbert W. Marsh

The Flow State Scale (FSS) is a new measure of flow in sport and physical activity settings. The nine FSS scales of the 36-item instrument represent the dimensions of flow discussed by Csikszentmihalyi (1990, 1993), and each scale is measured by four items. Development of items was based on (a) past research with flow state both within and outside of sport settings, (b) qualitative analysis of interviews with elite athletes, and (c) quantitative analyses conducted in the present investigation. Internal consistency estimates for the nine FSS scales were reasonable (alpha M = 33) for administration of the scale to 394 athletes. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the nine scales. Consistent with the theoretical basis of the FSS, there was also support for a hierarchical model in which one global (higher order) flow factor explained correlations among the nine first-order FSS factors. Suggestions for use of the scale and for further research are discussed.

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Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers, Margaret E. Whitehead, and Niek Pot

achieved through eudaimonic, objectively good, and virtuous means. However, considerable ethical debate surrounds what is, or can be considered, objectively good. From the beginnings of intellectual history, there has been wide debate about what defines “optimal experience” and what constitutes “the good

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Daniel Wigfield, Ryan Snelgrove, Luke R. Potwarka, Katie Misener, and Laura Wood

purposefully limits enrollment in the camps in order to ensure the most optimal experience for athletes based on the size of the facility and number of coaches available per session (i.e., 6 to 8 coaches). The company’s goal is to not have any more players than a course director can know by name. See Table  1

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Robert Weinberg

Weekly Report, 62 , 326 – 330 . Csikszentmihalyi , M. ( 1990 ). The psychology of optimal experience . New York, NY : Harper & Row . Dickens , Y.L. , Van Raalte , J. , & Hurlburt , R.T. ( 2018 ). On investigating self-talk: A descriptive experience sampling study of inner experience during

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Andy Gillham and Craig Stone

enhanced state of functioning, they are not able to consistently reproduce it. The first exploration regarding optimal experiences in competitive sport was Ravizza’s ( 1977 ) examination of the nature of athletes’ peak experiences. Specifically, Ravizza asked 20 athletes to describe their single most

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Yonghwan Chang, Daniel L. Wann, and Yuhei Inoue

understanding how fans’ subjective experiences of sport contribute to their well-being, health, and life satisfaction ( Doyle, Filo, Lock, Funk, & McDonald, 2016 ; Inoue, Berg, & Chelladurai, 2015 ). One of the core constructs of the positive psychology movement is the concept of flow (or optimal experiences

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Angela Devereux-Fitzgerald, Rachael Powell, and David P. French

.1037/0003-066X.54.3.165 10.1037/0003-066X.54.3.165 Csikszentmihalyi , M. ( 1990 ). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience . New York, NY : Harper Collins . Department for Communities and Local Government . ( 2011 ). English indices of deprivation 2010 . Retrieved from https

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Evelia Franco, Javier Coterón, Elisa Huéscar, and Juan A. Moreno-Murcia

focuses on the study of the flow state as a mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is fully immersed in the feelings of involvement and enjoyment ( Csikszentmihalyi, 2000 ). A flow state refers to an optimal experience that people report when they are completely involved in

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Steven Love, Lee Kannis-Dymand, and Geoff P. Lovell

. ). New York, NY : Routledge . Csikszentmihalyi , M. ( 1975 ). Beyond boredom and anxiety . Sanfrancisco, CA : Jossey Bass . Csikszentmihalyi , M. ( 1990 ). The psychology of optimal experience . New York, NY : Harper Perenial . Csikszentmihalyi , M. ( 1997 ). Flow and education . NAMTA