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Ashley Gibson Bowers, Christina L.L. Martin, John Miller, Brent Wolfe and Nancy Magee Speed

The purpose of the study was to examine female athletes’ perceptions of their body image as a result of comparing themselves to others. Social comparison theory (Festinger, 1954) was used as the theoretical basis for understanding the effects of body image among intercollegiate female athletes. Using a qualitative analysis, the authors individually interviewed 20 female collegiate athletes attending a Division I university and thematically coded their responses. The findings suggest that coaches and teammates significantly contribute to body image pressures in female athletes, as participants were sensitive to the comments and perceptions of these groups. Finally, athletes perceived that the external population (those outside of coaches and teammates) evaluated athletic talent based on actual body image.

Open access

Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

 = energy intake; LEA = low energy availability; FFM = fat-free mass. Athletics consists of a wide array of disciplines that vary significantly in physiological requirements, training characteristics, and optimal physique (Table  2 ; Burke et al., 2019 ; Slater et al., 2018 ; Stellingwerff et al., 2018

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

optimal physique over the athlete’s career as well as the manipulation within a season. Carbohydrate and Fat Periodization A key goal of training is to enhance the various metabolic pathways to improve the capacity and/or rate of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, particularly to reduce or delay the

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Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

familiar food environment). However, the specific features of each event, including optimal physique, typical training protocols, competition characteristics, and the parameters that limit performance, create differences in nutritional requirements as well as the opportunities to address them. The

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Ida A. Heikura, Marc Quod, Nicki Strobel, Roger Palfreeman, Rita Civil and Louise M. Burke

social media by professional teams or companies producing power meters/heart rate monitors suggests that there has been further refinement from these published data of what is considered “podium physiology” and “optimal physique” from within the peloton. These reports describe the phenotype of the

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

performance (eg, achieving optimal physique, using the interaction of nutrition and training to develop required physiological characteristics, development of a match nutrition plan) should have been achieved well before the World Cup period. The last 4 to 8 weeks of preparation, however, provide an