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Clément Theurillat, Ilona Punt, Stéphane Armand, Alice Bonnefoy-Mazure and Lara Allet

the ankle movement evolves in different planes during motion. 10 Therefore, an evaluation of the functional circumduction movement using an optoelectronic device is of interest and has the advantage that the ankle mobility can be measured in multiple planes. For the ankle joint, previous studies used

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Henri Meric, Frédéric Lofaso, Line Falaize and Didier Pradon

Plethysmography is an indispensable component of clinical lung function testing. However, lung volume measurement in the supine position using an optoelectronic system requires the placement of reflective markers on the anterior and lateral torso surface. The conventional method computes breath-by-breath changes in the volume between the markers and the bed, which serves as the reference plane. In contrast, the surface method consists of measuring the volume delineated by the surface area of the marker network at the onset and end of inspiration. We compared these 2 methods to spirometry during spontaneous breathing in 11 healthy volunteers and in 14 patients receiving routine visits for neuromuscular disease. Bland-Altman plots showed that agreement with spirometry was better for the surface method that the conventional method. Our results open up prospects for integrating these methods in the development of new devices.

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Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández, Hovannes Agopyan and Jean-Benoit Morin

based on opto-electronic devices and accelerometers. 11 , 13 , 14 Among these, the Optojump Next (Microgate, Bolzano, Italy) is probably the most widely used because of its high degree of validity and reliability compared with force platforms. 15 , 16 Moreover, contact and aerial times can be used

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Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Antonio Piepoli, Gabriel Garrido-Blanca, Gabriel Delgado-García, Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández and Amador García-Ramos

-based resistance training approach. 2 However, the interest in wearable wireless technology (camera-based optoelectronic device, inertial measurement units, or smartphone applications) is growing. 3 – 5 However, conflicting results exist regarding the validity of wearable wireless devices to measure movement

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Samuele Contemori and Andrea Biscarini

intermediate repetitions of the 8 completed repetitions. Kinematic Data Recording and Analysis The upper limb 3D kinematics were recorded with the use of a 6-camera Smart-DX 6000″ optoelectronic motion capture system and analyzed with the Smart Analyzer® software (BTS Bioengineering). Following the guidelines

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J. Atha, D. Harris, G. West and P.K. Manley

A prototype swimming tachometer is described which consists of a waterproof box housing a battery-powered electronic system linked externally to an opto-electronic velocity transducer. The device is strapped to the hips, where it monitors water flow to produce continuous measurements of two critical variables of swimming performance, namely, velocity and acceleration. These measurements are converted in real time to auditory feedback signals to the subject via an ear plug. Permanent records may be taken simultaneously as an option using a switched external line.

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Steve Hansen, Digby Elliott and Michael A. Khan

The utility of ellipsoids for quantifying central tendency and variability throughout the trajectory of goal-directed movements is described. Aiming movements were measured over 2 days of practice and under full-vision and no-vision conditions. A three-dimensional optoelectronic system measured the movements. Individual ellipsoid locations, dimensions, and volumes were derived from the average location and the spatial variability of the effector’s trajectory at proportional temporal periods throughout the movement. Changes in ellipsoid volume over time illustrate the evolution in motor control that occurred with practice and the processes associated with visual control. This technique has the potential to extend our understanding of limb control and can be applied to practical problems such as equipment design and evaluation of movement rehabilitation.

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Sébastien Duc, Vincent Villerius, William Bertucci and Frédéric Grappe


The Ergomo®Pro (EP) is a power meter that measures power output (PO) during outdoor and indoor cycling via 2 optoelectronic sensors located in the bottom bracket axis. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and the reproducibility of the EP compared with the SRM crank set and Powertap hub (PT).


The validity of the EP was tested in the laboratory during 8 submaximal incremental tests (PO: 100 to 400 W), eight 30-min submaximal constant-power tests (PO = 180 W), and 8 sprint tests (PO > 750 W) and in the field during 8 training sessions (time: 181 ± 73 min; PO: ~140 to 150 W). The reproducibility was assessed by calculating the coefficient of PO variation (CV) during the submaximal incremental and constant tests.


The EP provided a significantly higher PO than the SRM and PT during the submaximal incremental test: The mean PO differences were +6.3% ± 2.5% and +11.1% ± 2.1%, respectively. The difference was greater during field training sessions (+12.0% ± 5.7% and +16.5% ± 5.9%) but lower during sprint tests (+1.6% ± 2.5% and +3.2% ± 2.7%). The reproducibility of the EP is lower than those of the SRM and PT (CV = 4.1% ± 1.8%, 1.9% ± 0.4%, and 2.1% ± 0.8%, respectively).


The EP power meter appears less valid and reliable than the SRM and PT systems.

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Birgit Rösblad and Claes von Hofsten

Are children with developmental coordination disorders (DCD) more dependent on vision for constructing movements than children without DCD? How important is visual feedback of the hand and how important is visual specification of the goal in this respect? These questions were studied in 10 children with DCD, 3 girls and 7 boys, ranging in age between 7 and 16 years. Each child was matched against a child of the same sex and age without DCD. The task was to pick beads, one at a time, from one cup and carry them to another cup. With the aid of a mirror arrangement and a curtain, visual information about the performing hand and the cups and beads was manipulated. The movements were monitored with an optoelectronic device (SELSPOT II). The results showed that the children with DCD made movements that were both slower and much more variable than those of their age-matched peers, The withdrawal of visual information affected both groups of children in similar ways. However, one boy with developmental disorders revealed a remarkable decrease in performance when the task was carried out without visual information of either the hand or the cups and beads.

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Simo Ihalainen, Vesa Linnamo, Kaisu Mononen and Sami Kuitunen


To describe the long-term changes in shooting technique in relation to competition performances in elite air-rifle shooters.


Seventeen elite shooters completed simulated air-rifle shooting-competition series in 3 consecutive seasons, participating on 15 ± 7 testing occasions. Shooting score and aiming-point-trajectory variables were obtained with an optoelectronic shooting device, and postural-balance variables were measured with force platform. Shooters’ competition results were collected from all international and national competitions during the 3-y period.


Mean test score, stability of hold, aiming accuracy, cleanness of triggering, and postural balance improved during the 3-y period (ANOVA, time, P < .05−.01). Seasonal mean test results in stability of hold (R = −.70, P = .000) and cleanness of triggering (R = −.75, P = .000) were related to competition performances. Changes in stability of hold (R = −.61, P = .000) and cleanness of triggering (R = −.39, P = .022) were also related to the changes in competition performances. Postural balance in shooting direction was more related to cleanness of triggering (R = .57, P = .000), whereas balance in cross-shooting direction was more related to stability of hold (R = .70, P = .000).


The shooting-technique testing used in the current study seems to be a valid and useful tool for long-term performance assessment. Stability of hold, cleanness of triggering, and postural balance can be further developed even at the elite level, resulting in improved competition performances.