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Michael McDougall, Noora Ronkainen, David Richardson, Martin Littlewood, and Mark Nesti

An understanding of organizational culture (and other levels of analysis, such as team and performance department culture) is now regularly outlined as an essential component to sport psychology delivery in elite environments (e.g.,  Cruickshank & Collins, 2012 ; Cruickshank, Collins, & Minten

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Mark A. Beattie and Leeann M. Lower-Hoppe

professional sports can lead to sexist organizational cultures that discriminate against women and diminish their achievements ( Hindman & Walker, 2020 ). In their research on women managers working in professional sports, Hindman and Walker ( 2020 ) found that women managers felt ignored and minimized, while

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Jules Woolf, Jess C. Dixon, B. Christine Green, and Patrick J. Hill

interviews had given Jacobs a lot to think about. He moved his mouse over to open his Excel spreadsheet. Now seemed a good time to examine the questionnaire results. The Questionnaire The final part of his organizational audit involved staff members completing the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument

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W. James Weese

The areas of leadership and organizational culture continue to capture the interest of researchers and practitioners alike. Some suggest that these two areas might hold the key to understanding and predicting organizational effectiveness. Others remain skeptical, offering that effectiveness is determined by a variety of factors, many of which fall beyond the scope of the leader's influence or the culture of the organization. The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to explore the relationships that exist between transformational leadership (measured by the Leadership Behavior Questionnaire, organizational culture (measured by the Culture Strength Assessment), and organizational effectiveness (measured by the Target Population Satisfaction Index) in the campus recreation programs of both the Big Ten and Mid-American Conferences (N = 19). The directors of these programs were given considerable levels of job autonomy to lead their respective programs as well as the opportunity to alter and/or imbed a desired culture during their administration. Significant differences were uncovered in both conferences for executive transformational leadership and organizational effectiveness. However, no significant relationship was uncovered between transformational leadership and organizational effectiveness. A significant relationship was discovered between organizational culture strength and organizational effectiveness.

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Sue Colyer

This study of organizational culture in selected sport associations in Western Australia introduced a quantitative methodology to explore organizational culture to show its usefulness to complement the more qualitative methods traditionally applied to the study of organizational culture. The study used the competing values approach to develop cultural profiles for three sport organizations, which were compared with the sport association members' anecdotal, subjective views of their respective organizations. While the findings reveal evidence of the tensions between volunteers and employees that suggest the existence of subcultures, this study just touches the tip of the organizational culture “iceberg” in sport management. The conclusions indicate some benefits of using the competing values model in conjunction with more qualitative methods to probe sport organizational culture.

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Mike Wallace and W. James Weese

This study was undertaken to investigate the links between transformational leadership, organizational culture, and employee job satisfaction within the 69 Canadian YMCA organizations. Leadership was measured by the Leadership Behavior Questionnaire (Sashkin, 1988), organizational culture by the Organizational Culture Assessment Questionnaire (Sashkin, 1990), and employee job satisfaction by the Job in General Index (Balzer & Smith, 1990). The results of a MÁNOVA and subsequent ANOVA statistical treatments allowed the researchers to conclude that significant differences in organizational culture existed between the YMCA organizations led by high transformational leaders and YMCA organizations led by low transformational leaders. In addition, the YMCA organizations led by high transformational leaders administered organizations that carried out the culture-building activities of managing change, achieving goals, coordinated teamwork, and customer orientation to a greater degree than YMCA organizations led by low transformational leaders. No significant differences in employee job satisfaction levels existed between the YMCA organizations led by high transformational leaders and those led by low transformational leaders.

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Anita Navin, Don Vinson, Alison Croad, Jennifer Turnnidge, and Jean Côté

, Blomberg, & Kihlgren, 2014 ; James, Blomberg, Liljekvist, & Kihlgren, 2015 ). Second, the study draws on research concerning organizational culture in sport (e.g.,  Cole & Martin, 2018 ), and third, on the literature concerning the interface between sport and transformational leadership (TFL) ( Bass

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W. James Weese

This descriptive research study was conducted to investigate the concepts of transformational leadership and organizational culture within the administrative levels of campus recreation programs of Big Ten and Mid-American Conference universities. While transformational leadership was quantitatively measured by the Leadership Behavior Questionnaire (LBQ), the Culture Strength Assessment (CSA) and Culture Building Activities (CBA) instruments provided two quantitative measures of organizational culture. Qualitative data were also collected and analyzed to enrich and cross validate the findings. The researcher concluded that high transformational leaders direct programs that (a) possess stronger organizational cultures and (b) carry out culture-building activities, specifically the “customer orientation” function, to a greater extent than other leaders do. An interaction effect between leadership and conference was uncovered for this variable. No significant difference was uncovered between the high and low leadership groups relative to the penetration of culture throughout the top four hierarchical levels of the organization.

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Cathy Mills and Larena Hoeber

Although some elements of community sport organizations (CSOs) are welcoming and shared across all members, others may be contested. Organizational culture provides a conceptual lens through which to understand the meaning and experiences associated with CSOs. As the outer layer of organizational culture (Schein, 1985), artifacts can give further insight into participant experiences. The purpose of this study is to examine members’ perceptions of artifacts in a local figure skating club. We used Martin’s (1992, 2002) three perspectives to illuminate integrated, differentiated, and fragmented perspectives of The Club’s organizational culture. Eight skaters and seven adults from a midsize figure skating club in Canada participated in photo-elicited interviews. We found integration in participants’ discussion of the unique figure skating facility, differentiated perspectives of achievement-oriented artifacts, and fragmented perspectives of the skaters’ dressing rooms. Our research demonstrates the importance of examining the meanings associated with artifacts in sport organizations.

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Florian Hemme, Dominic G. Morais, Matthew T. Bowers, and Janice S. Todd

investigations of change in the public recreation sector, as well as longitudinal examinations of large-scale organizational culture transformation attempts, which limits both theoretical and practical utility for sport management scholars and professionals interested in organizational change. Public recreation