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Pasi Koski

The purpose of this study was to analyze the organizational effectiveness of Finnish sports clubs (n = 835) from an open systems perspective. Five dimensions of effectiveness were examined, including the ability to obtain resources, internal atmosphere, efficiency of the throughput process, realization of aims, and general level of activity. All dimensions except internal atmosphere were intercorrelated. The findings indicated that many features of effectiveness were largely linked to the size of the membership, ideological orientation, and organizational environment. Success orientation was found to be incompatible with a relaxed atmosphere.

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P. Chelladurai

Several models of organizational effectiveness are integrated into a comprehensive framework from a viewpoint of organizations as open systems. The multidimensionality of effectiveness is seen as emanating from both the input-throughput-output conceptualization of an organization and the distinctive domains of activities of an organization. The relevance of specific dimensions of effectiveness is said to be contingent upon the type of organization and/or the domain of activities the organization is engaged in. The paper describes the multiple constituency approaches that variously emphasize the need to satisfy the powerful groups, the least advantaged groups, or different groups at different times. The position taken in this paper, however, advocates the perspective of the “prime beneficiary.”

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Dallas Branch Jr.

Intercollegiate athletics has come under increasing scrutiny. Questions of leadership and the NCAA’s Presidents’ Commission reflect new levels of exposure and commitment to clean the athletic house. The problem of defining the academic/athletic balance in big-time college sports has polarized faculty, administrators, and athletic leaders at many colleges and universities. The purpose of this study was to examine athletic director and selected assistant perceptions of leader behavior to determine whether their perceptions contributed significantly to the prediction of intercollegiate organizational effectiveness. Findings indicate that effective athletic organizations have leaders who are more predisposed to goal and task accomplishment than to developing good interpersonal relationships with their subordinates. Contemporary leadership theory and management philosophy suggests that organizations that can accomplish both are most effective. Athletic directors may want to adjust their leadership behaviors to meet the managerial demands of today’s intercollegiate athletic program.

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George B. Cunningham and Calvin Nite

examine the impact of local communities on organizational effectiveness. Consistent with Greenwood et al. ( 2008 ), we considered institutions as “more or less taken for granted repetitive social behavior that is underpinned by normative systems and cognitive understandings that give meaning to social

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Zoë A. Poucher, Katherine A. Tamminen, and Christopher R.D. Wagstaff

Sport organizations have been noted as pivotal to the success or failure of athletes, and sport environments can impact the well-being and development of athletes. In this study, the authors explored stakeholders’ perceptions of how high-performance sport organizations support athlete development. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 stakeholders from the United Kingdom’s high-performance sport system and transcripts were analyzed using a semantic thematic analysis. Participants emphasized the importance of performance lifestyle advisors, sport psychologists, and financial assistance for promoting athlete development. Several stakeholders observed that despite the extensive support available to athletes, many do not engage with available support, and the prevalence of a performance narrative has led to an environment that discourages holistic development. It follows that sport organizations could develop alternative strategies for promoting athletes’ access to and engagement with available supports, while funding agencies might broaden existing funding criteria to include well-being or athlete development targets.

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Daniel Wigfield, Ryan Snelgrove, Luke R. Potwarka, Katie Misener, and Laura Wood

Mano Watsa, President of Point Guard College (PGC) Basketball, is contemplating the next direction to take his organization. His co-owner, Nicole, is adamant that the next five years should be focused on growing PGC Basketball. Like Nicole, Mano would love to see PGC Basketball continue to grow; however, he is skeptical about focusing on growth when the organization is facing some significant challenges. Specifically, PGC Basketball is faced with a low athlete annual retention rate (i.e., 20%) and camps in some regions operating below 70% capacity. In addition, Mano recognizes that PGC Basketball has issues achieving consistency within their operations to ensure quality control, promoting their summer camps within all the markets they serve, as well as attracting and retaining top talent to work as camp instructors. Mano must determine the best strategy to implement for PGC Basketball to continue its success over the next five years.

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W. James Weese

The areas of leadership and organizational culture continue to capture the interest of researchers and practitioners alike. Some suggest that these two areas might hold the key to understanding and predicting organizational effectiveness. Others remain skeptical, offering that effectiveness is determined by a variety of factors, many of which fall beyond the scope of the leader's influence or the culture of the organization. The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to explore the relationships that exist between transformational leadership (measured by the Leadership Behavior Questionnaire, organizational culture (measured by the Culture Strength Assessment), and organizational effectiveness (measured by the Target Population Satisfaction Index) in the campus recreation programs of both the Big Ten and Mid-American Conferences (N = 19). The directors of these programs were given considerable levels of job autonomy to lead their respective programs as well as the opportunity to alter and/or imbed a desired culture during their administration. Significant differences were uncovered in both conferences for executive transformational leadership and organizational effectiveness. However, no significant relationship was uncovered between transformational leadership and organizational effectiveness. A significant relationship was discovered between organizational culture strength and organizational effectiveness.

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W. James Weese

Organizational effectiveness continues to be a popular topic in management settings, seminars, and research projects. Similar levels of interest prevail in the area of sport management, although most of the attention is expressed in the elite sport areas. This paper provides an overview of the organizational effectiveness literature with specific application to the area of recreationalintramural sport programs in institutions of higher learning.

The Target Population Satisfaction Index (TPSI) instrument is introduced as an instrument to measure organizational effectiveness in these programs. The author outlines the steps taken to develop and test the instrument as well as a suggested protocol for administering the instrument. The TPSI instrument was subjected to a number of psychometric assessments and is presented as a valid and reliable measurement tool.

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Ming Li

Twelve organizational variables that were associated with the organizational effectiveness of spare-time sports schools in China were examined. Specifically, coaches' expressed satisfaction with their jobs and their performance was assessed, and the significant organizational correlates of these two effectiveness indicators were identified. Six hundred forty coaches participated in the study, Stepwise multiple regression analyses were carried out to determine if there were common determinants of coaches' job satisfaction and performance, The results showed that job influence, job motivation, incentive system, and leader behavior had a more pervasive influence on job satisfaction and job performance of the coaches than did other variables.

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Packianathan Chelladurai and Harold A. Riemer

Although several authors have emphasized the need to treat the athlete as the prime beneficiary of intercollegiate athletics, there has been little effort to assess athlete reactions to their experiences. This paper stresses the uniqueness of athletic teams, develops a rationale for measuring athlete satisfaction, and emphasizes that athlete satisfaction can be used as a measure of organizational effectiveness. A classification of the various facets of satisfaction in athletics is presented. A facet is classified by the following criteria: whether it (a) is task- or social-related, (b) is an outcome or a process, and (c) affects the individual or the team. The extent to which the identified facets of satisfaction are exhaustive, exclusive, and internally homogeneous is discussed.