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Yaheli Bet-Or, Wolbert van den Hoorn, Venerina Johnston and Shaun O’Leary

explored. 1 , 13 , 14 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the AMC method in tracking scapular orientation at active end range clavicle protraction, retraction, elevation, and depression. Validity was evaluated by comparing AMC recordings to that of a scapular

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Weimo Zhu and Ang Chen

One of the most important legacies and contributions that Catherine D. Ennis made is her line of research on physical education teachers’ value orientations. This specific research line and associated scholarship stemmed from developing the well-known Value Orientation Inventory (VOI; Chen, Ennis

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Janneke Lommertzen, Alexander M.J. van Zuijlen, Ruud G.J. Meulenbroek and Rob van Lier

The current study focused on the time course of the effects of the rod-and-frame illusion (RFI) on the kinematics of targeted forearm rotations. Participants were asked to reproduce perceived rod orientations by propelling a hand-held cylinder forward while rotating it to the target orientation. Rod and frame orientations were systematically varied, and cylinder rotations were normalized to time. Average realized cylinder orientations confirmed that when the frame orientation deviated from the vertical, a reproduction error occurred in the direction opposite to the direction of the frame tilt. In contrast, the perceived orientation of the stimulus rod was exaggerated relative to the vertical (i.e., reproduction errors were in the direction of the rod tilt). Furthermore, linear regression analyses for every normalized time sample showed that the rod and frame effects start simultaneously, but they reach their maximum effect at different points in time. We discuss the implications of our findings for current views on the effects of visual illusions on motor control.

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Craig Parkes and Michael A. Hemphill

Over the last 35 years, occupational socialization research has suggested that preservice teachers (PTs) entering physical education teacher education (PETE) programs typically possess a teaching, moderate coaching, or hardcore coaching orientation ( Curtner-Smith, Hastie, & Kinchin, 2008 ; Lawson

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Edmund O. Acevedo, David A. Dzewaltowski, Diane L. Gill and John M. Noble

The purpose of this study was to examine the sport-specific cognitions of 112 ultramarathoners competing in a 100-mile trail run. Subjects completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, the Trait Sport-Confidence Inventory, the Commitment to Running Scale, and a questionnaire designed by the investigators to assess goals, cognitive strategies, perceptions of “runner’s high,” and feelings that occur when subjects are unable to run. Ultramarathoners were more confident, more committed to running, slightly higher in competitiveness, lower on win orientation, and higher on goal orientation in comparison to other athletes. Ultramarathoners also rated importance of and commitment to time goals very high; importance of and commitment to place goals were rated low. No significant differences in cognitive orientations were found between finishers and nonfinishers or between males and females. Responses to open-ended questions revealed that most ultramarathoners reported predominately external thoughts during races, had feelings of psychological well-being and strength as a result of ultramarathoning, never or rarely experienced runner’s high, and experienced negative psychological states when unable to run. Overall, these results demonstrate the unique sport-specific cognitive orientations of ultramarathoners.

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E. Whitney G. Moore and Karen Weiller-Abels

description) replicated Nicholls’ cognitive development results. As youth develop the cognitive ability to distinguish between effort, ability, and luck, their perceptions of success and competence can shift from a solely self-referenced and learning focus (i.e., task goal orientation) to include an other

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Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, Deborah. S. Baxter and Leah K. May

In the first paper in this special issue of Kinesiology Review ( Zhu & Chen, 2018 ), readers would have learned about the three versions of the Value Orientation Inventory (VOI; Chen, Ennis, & Loftus, 1997 ; Ennis & Chen, 1993 ; Ennis & Hooper, 1988 ) that Catherine Ennis and her colleagues

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Kristen Lucas and E. Whitney G. Moore

Perspective Theory ( Nicholls, 1984 , 1989 ) posits that there is an optimal motivational state for individuals in achievement contexts. This state is defined by two orthogonal (i.e., not significantly correlated) goal orientations (i.e., task and ego), which are individuals’ personal definitions of success

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Joshua Twaites, Richard Everson, Joss Langford and Melvyn Hillsdon

with higher compliance ( Fairclough et al., 2016 ) and is becoming the location of choice in many large studies such as the UK Biobank study ( Allen et al., 2012 ). While usage of the wrist has become more common, there are no clear guidelines on which wrist should be used (and at which orientation the

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Rafael Burgueño, José Macarro-Moreno, Isabel Sánchez-Gallardo, María-Jesús Lirola and Jesús Medina-Casaubón

; Vallerand, Deshaies, Cuerrier, Brière, & Pelletier, 1996 ) has become one of the most commonly used theoretical perspectives for its analysis. This approach conceptualizes sportsmanship around its orientation, which refers to self-perceptions and internalized structures relevant to each of the dimensions of