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Crayton L. Moss, Beatrice Gorton, and Suzanne Deters

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of four different treatments on the control of the amount and rate of foot pronation while running. The four treatments were the reverse 8-stirrup taping technique, the low-dye taping technique, prescribed rigid orthotic devices, and no support in the running shoe. Six intercollegiate cross-country runners were filmed from the rear while running on a treadmill, and the film data were analyzed. A two-way MANOVA indicated no significant overall treatment effect for the dependent variables. A one-way ANOVA indicated that the reverse 8-stirrup taping technique significantly reduced the amount of maximum pronation when compared to shoes-no support and low-dye taping techniques. The reverse 8-stirrup also had significantly fewer degrees of total rear foot movement when compared to the low-dye taping technique. No other significant comparisons were realized. It was concluded that the reverse 8-stirrup would be as effective a treatment for excessive pronation in runners as the prescribed rigid orthotic device.

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Michael G. Dolan

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Dorianne Schuitema, Christian Greve, Klaas Postema, Rienk Dekker, and Juha M. Hijmans

and free-text words. The exact search strategy is described in Appendix . Keywords used were plantar fasciitis, heel spur, calcaneal spur combined via a Boolean AND operator with orthotic devices, shoes, splints, rocker, soles, and tape. The search was performed up to March 26, 2017, and updated on

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Walter L. Jenkins, D.S. Williams, Brandon Bevil, Sara Stanley, Michael Blemker, Drue Taylor, and Kevin O’Brien

Excessive hip motion has been linked to lower extremity pathology. Foot orthoses are commonly used to control motion within lower extremity joints when lower extremity pathology and dysfunction are present. Few studies have investigated the effect of foot orthoses on hip angular kinematics during functional activities. Eighteen females and 18 males performed a vertical jump with and without a prefabricated foot orthoses to determine the biomechanical effect of foot orthoses on hip kinematics when landing from a jump. Data collection included three-dimensional motion analysis of the lower extremity. Paired t tests were performed to determine if differences existed within genders with and without foot orthoses. At the hip joint, there was significantly less hip adduction motion in the foot orthoses condition as compared with the no foot orthoses condition in females (p < .05). There were no differences between foot orthoses conditions in males. Females appear to have a different proximal response to foot orthoses when landing from a forward jump than males.

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Walter L. Jenkins, Dorsey Shelton Williams, Alex Durland, Brandon Adams, and Kevin O’Brien

The use of foot orthoses has been evaluated during a variety of functional activities. Twelve college-aged active females wore two types of foot orthoses and performed a vertical jump to determine the biomechanical effect of the orthoses on lower extremity transverse plane movement during landing. Data collection included three-dimensional analysis of the tibia, knee, and hip. A repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to determine the differences between no orthoses, over-the-counter, and custom-made orthoses with transverse plane motion. At the hip joint, there was significantly less internal rotation (p < .05) in the over-the-counter condition as compared with the no orthoses condition. There was significantly less tibial internal rotation (p < .05) in the custom-made condition as compared with no orthoses. Over-the-counter devices decreased transverse plane motion at the hip, whereas custom-made devices decreased transverse plane motion of the tibia.

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Hamid Bateni

Orthoses are designed to assist a malaligned foot in adapting to the environment and reduce the frequency of injury. Literature is divided on the benefits of orthotics insoles for postural stability. The current study was conducted to determine the effect of prefabricated orthotic arch supports on postural stabilization. Twelve healthy young adults participated in this study and were tested with and without prefabricated orthotics. Different variables were computed from movement of center of pressure (COP) during orthotic use as suggested in the literature. The mean position of COP was significantly shifted forward and toward the dominant side. Neither the COP movement nor the velocity changes following the use of orthotics revealed significant differences. Mediolateral range of COP movement and the 95% confidence circle area of sway was significantly reduced (P = .022 and 0.048 respectively), but changes in 95% confidence circle and ellipse areas of fractal dimension were not significant (P = .053 and P = .057 respectively). In conclusion, orthotic insoles significantly improved postural sway initially by reducing mediolateral range of postural sway and 95% confidence circle area of sway at the cost of increased fractal dimension area variables and power.

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Jonathan S. Goodwin, Robert A. Creighton, Brian G. Pietrosimone, Jeffery T. Spang, and J. Troy Blackburn

loading during weight-bearing activities. 6 – 8 Orthotic devices such as medial unloader knee braces and lateral wedges placed in shoes are often utilized to minimize compressive loading of the medial compartment. These devices are designed to induce valgus loading to counter compressive loading of the

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Christopher M. Bouvette, Gerard A. Malanga, William P. Cooney, Michael J. Stuart, and Richard W. Miller

Athletes who sustain metacarpal injuries such as nondisplaced and minimally displaced fractures or metacarpophalangeal dislocation have benefited from the use of a newly developed Plastizote hand/wrist orthotic device. This orthosis allows appropriate immobilization as well as early, safe, and effective return to contact sports during the healing process. Three case reports are presented along with applications and methods for fabricating this lightweight splint.

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Christopher L. MacLean, Irene S. Davis, and Joseph Hamill

The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of varying running shoe midsole composition on lower extremity dynamics with and without a custom foot orthotic intervention. Three-dimensional dynamics were collected on 12 female runners who had completed 6 weeks of custom foot orthotic therapy. Participants completed running trials in 3 running shoe midsole conditions—with and without a custom foot orthotic intervention. Results from the current study revealed that only maximum rearfoot eversion velocity was influenced by the midsole durometer of the shoe. Maximum rearfoot eversion velocity was significantly decreased for the hard shoe compared with the soft shoe. However, the orthotic intervention in the footwear led to significant decreases in several dynamic variables. The results suggest that the major component influencing the rearfoot dynamics was the orthotic device and not the shoe composition. In addition, data suggest that the foot orthoses appear to compensate for the lesser shoe stability enabling it to function in a way similar to that of a shoe of greater stability.

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Fabian Mager, Jim Richards, Malika Hennies, Eugen Dötzel, Ambreen Chohan, Alex Mbuli, and Felix Capanni

Forefoot stiffness has been shown to influence joint biomechanics. However, little or no data exist on metatarsophalangeal stiffness. Twenty-four healthy rearfoot strike runners were recruited from a staff and student population at the University of Central Lancashire. Five repetitions of shod, self-selected speed level walking, and jogging were performed. Kinetic and kinematic data were collected using retroreflective markers placed on the lower limb and foot to create a 3-segment foot model using the calibrated anatomical system technique. Ankle and metatarsophalangeal moments and angles were calculated. Stiffness values were calculated using a linear best fit line of moment versus of angle plots. Paired t tests were used to compare values between walking and jogging conditions. Significant differences were seen in ankle range of motion, but not in metatarsophalangeal range of motion. Maximum moments were significantly greater in the ankle during jogging, but these were not significantly different at the metatarsophalangeal joint. Average ankle joint stiffness exhibited significantly lower stiffness when walking compared with jogging. However, the metatarsophalangeal joint exhibited significantly greater stiffness when walking compared with jogging. A greater understanding of forefoot stiffness may inform the development of footwear, prosthetic feet, and orthotic devices, such as ankle foot orthoses for walking and sporting activities.