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William L. Dunlop, Daniel J. Beatty and Mark R. Beauchamp

This research examined the relative effects of other-efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs in relation to individual performance within a cooperative dyadic setting. Pairs of female participants (M age = 20.08, SD = 1.93) performed three practice trials on a dyadic dance-based videogame. Other-efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs were then manipulated through the provision of bogus feedback regarding each pair member's coordination abilities. Following the administration of this feedback, pairs performed a final trial on this dance-based task. The results revealed a main effect for other-efficacy, such that participants in the enhanced other-efficacy conditions outperformed those in the inhibited other-efficacy conditions on this task. A main effect for self-efficacy was not observed. Furthermore, there was no evidence of an interaction between other-efficacy and self-efficacy. The results of this study suggest that other-efficacy may supersede the effects of self-efficacy in supporting personal performance within cooperative relational contexts.

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Mark R. Beauchamp and Lauren C. Whinton

One-day equestrian eventing comprises three disciplines: dressage, show-jumping, and cross-country. Participants in the present study were 187 riders (38 M, 149 F) competing in one of two intermediate-level 1-day competitions. Participants’ perceptions of their own (self-efficacy) and their horses’ abilities (other-efficacy) were assessed 30 minutes prior to each stage of competition and examined in relation to subsequent riding performance. For dressage, self efficacy (β = –.20, p < .05) and other-efficacy (β = –.26, p < .01) were each able to explain unique variance in dressage performance (adj. R 2 = .16). However, for both show-jumping and cross-country disciplines, neither form of efficacy was associated with the corresponding measure of riding performance. The results for show-jumping and cross-country may be explained by the lack of variability and heavily skewed nature of the performance data in these two contexts. Consistent with previous research, the results for dressage suggest that self-efficacy may be an important predictor of performance in sport. However, in line with theorizing by Lent and Lopez (2002), the results suggest that other-efficacy may also be an important predictor of behavioral enactment within performing dyads.

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Ben Jackson, Nicholas D. Myers, Ian M. Taylor and Mark R. Beauchamp

This study explored the predictive relationships between students’ (N = 516, M age = 18.48, SD = 3.52) tripartite efficacy beliefs and key outcomes in undergraduate physical activity classes. Students reported their relational efficacy perceptions (i.e., other-efficacy and relation-inferred self-efficacy, or RISE) with respect to their instructor before a class, and instruments measuring self-efficacy, enjoyment, and effort were administered separately following the class. The following week, an independent observer assessed student achievement. Latent variable path analyses that accounted for nesting within classes revealed (a) that students were more confident in their own ability when they reported favorable other-efficacy and RISE appraisals, (b) a number of direct and indirect pathways through which other-efficacy and RISE predicted adaptive in-class outcomes, and (c) that self-efficacy directly predicted enjoyment and effort, and indirectly predicted achievement. Although previous studies have examined isolated aspects within the tripartite framework, this represents the first investigation to test the full range of direct and indirect pathways associated with the entire model.

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Christine M. Habeeb, Robert C. Eklund and Pete Coffee

dependent on factors such as how a teammate performs ( Bandura, 1997 ). As such, self-efficacy theory has been extended to include beliefs about a specific teammate’s capabilities (i.e., other-efficacy; Lent & Lopez, 2002 ) and beliefs about a team’s conjoint capabilities (i.e., collective efficacy

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Christine M. Habeeb, Robert C. Eklund and Pete Coffee

likely have beliefs about self-performance (e.g., self-efficacy), the partner’s performance (e.g., other-efficacy), and their dyadic performance (e.g., collective efficacy) as postulated in theory ( Bandura, 1977 , 1997 ; Lent & Lopez, 2002 ). Unfortunately, how these beliefs are specifically dependent

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Ben Jackson, Daniel F. Gucciardi and James A. Dimmock

Recent studies of coach–athlete interaction have explored the bivariate relationships between each of the tripartite efficacy constructs (self-efficacy; other-efficacy; relation-inferred self-efficacy, or RISE) and various indicators of relationship quality. This investigation adopted an alternative approach by using cluster analyses to identify tripartite efficacy profiles within a sample of 377 individual sport athletes (M age = 20.25, SD = 2.12), and examined how individuals in each cluster group differed in their perceptions about their relationship with their coach (i.e., commitment, satisfaction, conflict). Four clusters emerged: High (n = 128), Moderate (n = 95), and Low (n = 78) profiles, in which athletes reported relatively high, moderate, or low scores across all tripartite perceptions, respectively, as well as an Unfulfilled profile (n = 76) in which athletes held relatively high self-efficacy, but perceived lower levels of other-efficacy and RISE. Multivariate analyses revealed differences between the clusters on all relationship variables that were in line with theory. These results underscore the utility of considering synergistic issues in the examination of the tripartite efficacy framework.

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Ben Jackson, Peter R. Whipp, K.L. Peter Chua, James A. Dimmock and Martin S. Hagger

Within instructional settings, individuals form relational efficacy appraisals that complement their self-efficacy beliefs. In high school physical education (PE), for instance, students develop a level of confidence in their teacher’s capabilities, as well as estimating how confident they think their teacher is in their (i.e., the students’) ability. Grounded in existing transcontextual work, we examined the motivational pathways through which students’ relational efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs in PE were predictive of their leisure-time physical activity. Singaporean students (N = 990; age M = 13.95, SD = 1.02) completed instruments assessing efficacy beliefs, perceptions of teacher relatedness support, and autonomous motivation toward PE, and 2 weeks later they reported their motivation toward, and engagement in, leisure-time physical activity. Structural equation modeling revealed that students reported stronger other-efficacy and RISE beliefs when they felt that their teacher created a highly relatedness-supportive environment. In turn, their relational efficacy beliefs (a) supported their confidence in their own ability, (b) directly and indirectly predicted more autonomous motives for participation in PE, and (c) displayed prospective transcontextual effects in relation to leisure-time variables. By emphasizing the adaptive motivational effects associated with the tripartite constructs, these findings highlight novel pathways linking students’ efficacy perceptions with leisure-time outcomes.

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Cassandra Sparks, Chris Lonsdale, James Dimmock and Ben Jackson

positive changes in secondary outcome variables, specifically PE enjoyment, self-efficacy (i.e., confidence in their ability in PE), other-efficacy (i.e., confidence in their teacher’s ability), relation-inferred self-efficacy (i.e., RISE; their estimation of their teacher’s and classmates’ confidence in

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Ben Jackson, Mark R. Beauchamp and Peter Knapp

The first purpose of this study was to examine the interrelationships among three forms of relational efficacy within performing dyads, namely, self-efficacy, other-efficacy, and relation-inferred self-efficacy. The second objective was to examine the relationships between these efficacy beliefs and athletes’ perceptions of their commitment to and satisfaction with their current partnership. Participants were 120 junior tennis players (age, M = 14.30 years, SD = 1.21) performing within 60 intact pairs (i.e., doubles). Results revealed that self-efficacy and other-efficacy were predictive of athlete commitment and satisfaction, respectively. In addition, by utilizing actor–partner interdependence models, partner as well as actor effects were evident. The findings illustrate that relational efficacy beliefs may not only have implications for the individual holding such beliefs, but also for his or her relational partner. Implications for the future study of efficacy beliefs within dyadic contexts are discussed.

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Ben Jackson, Peter Knapp and Mark R. Beauchamp

Drawing from Lent and Lopez’s (2002) “tripartite” model of relational efficacy, the overall purpose of this study was to examine antecedents and consequences of self-effcacy, other-efficacy, and relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE) within six international-level athlete dyads. Semistructured interviews were conducted and data were content analyzed using deductive and inductive procedures. Sources of efficacy emerged in relation to perceptions regarding (i) oneself, (ii) one’s partner, (iii) the dyad/relationship, and (iv) external factors. Results also revealed the emergence of a number of salient intrapersonal and interpersonal outcomes, incorporating cognitive, affective, as well as behavioral consequences. Implications for theory development and future research are considered, and applied propositions are discussed with regard to effective relationship management in elite sport.