interactions outside of school hours that will enhance optimal social, cognitive, and physical development and potentially contribute to more successful functioning as an adult ( Block & Malloy, 1998 ; Castenada & Sherril, 1999 ; Costin & Jones, 1992 ; Parker & Asher, 1987 ). Out-of-school time PA programs
Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Viviane Grassmann, Krystn Orr, Amy C. McPherson, Guy E. Faulkner and F. Virginia Wright
Maureen R. Weiss, Lindsay E. Kipp, Alison Phillips Reichter, Sarah M. Espinoza and Nicole D. Bolter
named a leading out-of-school-time social and emotional learning program in the United States ( 23 ). Girls on the Run adopts the Five Cs approach to PYD that targets competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring—and a sixth C, contribution, accompanies the Five Cs ( 25 ). The program
Peter Hastie, Hans van der Mars, Todd Layne and Danielle Wadsworth
This study examined the effectiveness of three conditions in which 48 fourth-grade students were prompted to be physically active out of school. Using an alternating treatments design (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007) the three intervention conditions included: (a) Baseline: No prompting of students, (b) Teacher Prompts: Verbal prompt to “remember to do something active after school today”, and (c) Teacher Prompts and group-oriented contingencies: Verbal prompts with an index card where students could record their activity to earn bonus points as part of a team challenge. Graphically plotted pedometer data depicting data paths, variability, and trends within and across three conditions showed that students were more active outside of school only when the contingent reinforcement (c) was in place. This suggests that using prompts and group-oriented contingencies within Sport Education appears to be an effective and authentic context for promoting independent (i.e., free play) out-of-school time physical activity.
R. Glenn Weaver, Michael W. Beets, Collin Webster and Jennifer Huberty
Frontline-staff are critical to achieving policies related to child physical activity and nutrition (PAaN) in out-of-school-time programs (OSTP). Recent policies call upon staff to demonstrate behaviors related to PAaN. Currently, no instrument exists to measure these behaviors. This study fills the gap between policy mandates and staff behaviors by describing the development of the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Activity and Nutrition (SOSPAN) in OSTP.
SOSPAN items were aligned with existing OSTP policies. Reliability and validity data of SOSPAN were collected across 8 OSTP: 4 summer day camps and 4 afterschool programs. Validity of SOSPAN staff behaviors/management of PA was established using the percent of children active measured concurrently via direct observation.
A total of 6437 scans were performed. Interrater percent agreement ranged from 74%–99% across PAaN behaviors. Children’s activity was associated with staff facilitative behaviors/management, such as playing with the children and providing 2 or more activities for children to choose, while prohibitive behaviors/management, such as waiting in line were related to increased sedentary behavior. Staff nutrition behaviors were observed in less than 0.6% of scans.
SOSPAN is a reliable and valid tool to assess staff behaviors/management of PAaN in OSTPs.
Blanca Roman-Viñas, Fabio Zazo, Jesús Martínez-Martínez, Susana Aznar-Laín and Lluís Serra-Majem
weekend) 3 Physical Fitness INC There was very limited data to accurately assign a grade for this indicator School C+ 74% of schools offered their outdoor facilities out of school time 3 24 to 30% of schools where students were offered the mandated amount of Physical Education 3 Family and Peers INC No
Nisha Botchwey, Myron F. Floyd, Keshia Pollack Porter, Carmen L. Cutter, Chad Spoon, Tom L. Schmid, Terry L. Conway, J. Aaron Hipp, Anna J. Kim, M. Renee Umstattd Meyer, Amanda L. Walker, Tina J. Kauh and Jim F. Sallis
Heart Association funds only). The topic areas are: • pregnancy and maternal health; • infant, child, and adolescent development; • behavioral economics; • role of health care providers and the health care system; • role of business and industry; • out-of-school time; • transportation, land use, urban
Michael A. Hemphill and Tom Martinek
. References Akiva , T. , Li , J. , Martin , K.M. , Horner , C.G. , & McNamara , A.R. ( 2017 ). Simple Interactions: Piloting a strengths-based and interaction-based professional development intervention for out-of-school time programs . Child & Youth Care Forum, 46 , 285 – 305 . doi: 10.1007/s
Krystn Orr, Katherine A. Tamminen, Shane N. Sweet, Jennifer R. Tomasone and Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos
; Fitzgerald, 2005 ; Goodwin & Watkinson, 2000 ) and out-of-school time ( Arbour-Nicitopoulos et al., in press ; Rimmer, Rowland, & Yamaki, 2007 ; Shields & Synnot, 2016 ) settings. This lack of knowledge and experience often translates to a lack of available programs for youth with physical disabilities
Sarah A. Amin, Paula J. Duquesnay, Catherine M. Wright, Kenneth Chui, Christina D. Economos and Jennifer M. Sacheck
- and out-of-school time . Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act . 2016 ; 13 : 39 . PubMed doi:10.1186/s12966-016-0358-x 10.1186/s12966-016-0358-x 27000400 20. Humbert ML , Chad KE , Spink KS , et al . Factors that influence physical activity participation among high and low-SES youth . Qual Health Res
Kasper Salin, Mikko Huhtiniemi, Anthony Watt, Harto Hakonen and Timo Jaakkola
.1186/s12889-016-3213-8 27417298 10.1186/s12889-016-3213-8 23. Hubbard K , Economos CD , Bakun P , et al . Disparities in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among girls and overweight and obese schoolchildren during school- and out-of-school time . Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act . 2016 ; 13