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Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Viviane Grassmann, Krystn Orr, Amy C. McPherson, Guy E. Faulkner and F. Virginia Wright

interactions outside of school hours that will enhance optimal social, cognitive, and physical development and potentially contribute to more successful functioning as an adult ( Block & Malloy, 1998 ; Castenada & Sherril, 1999 ; Costin & Jones, 1992 ; Parker & Asher, 1987 ). Out-of-school time PA programs

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Maureen R. Weiss, Lindsay E. Kipp, Alison Phillips Reichter, Sarah M. Espinoza and Nicole D. Bolter

named a leading out-of-school-time social and emotional learning program in the United States ( 23 ). Girls on the Run adopts the Five Cs approach to PYD that targets competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring—and a sixth C, contribution, accompanies the Five Cs ( 25 ). The program

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Tom Martinek and Michael A. Hemphill

Don Hellison’s Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model is well-known among scholars and practitioners who work in out-of-school time (OST) physical activity settings (see, Hellison, 2011 ). Although the model has a strong foundation in physical education curriculum, it is often

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Peter Hastie, Hans van der Mars, Todd Layne and Danielle Wadsworth

This study examined the effectiveness of three conditions in which 48 fourth-grade students were prompted to be physically active out of school. Using an alternating treatments design (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007) the three intervention conditions included: (a) Baseline: No prompting of students, (b) Teacher Prompts: Verbal prompt to “remember to do something active after school today”, and (c) Teacher Prompts and group-oriented contingencies: Verbal prompts with an index card where students could record their activity to earn bonus points as part of a team challenge. Graphically plotted pedometer data depicting data paths, variability, and trends within and across three conditions showed that students were more active outside of school only when the contingent reinforcement (c) was in place. This suggests that using prompts and group-oriented contingencies within Sport Education appears to be an effective and authentic context for promoting independent (i.e., free play) out-of-school time physical activity.

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R. Glenn Weaver, Michael W. Beets, Collin Webster and Jennifer Huberty


Frontline-staff are critical to achieving policies related to child physical activity and nutrition (PAaN) in out-of-school-time programs (OSTP). Recent policies call upon staff to demonstrate behaviors related to PAaN. Currently, no instrument exists to measure these behaviors. This study fills the gap between policy mandates and staff behaviors by describing the development of the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Activity and Nutrition (SOSPAN) in OSTP.


SOSPAN items were aligned with existing OSTP policies. Reliability and validity data of SOSPAN were collected across 8 OSTP: 4 summer day camps and 4 afterschool programs. Validity of SOSPAN staff behaviors/management of PA was established using the percent of children active measured concurrently via direct observation.


A total of 6437 scans were performed. Interrater percent agreement ranged from 74%–99% across PAaN behaviors. Children’s activity was associated with staff facilitative behaviors/management, such as playing with the children and providing 2 or more activities for children to choose, while prohibitive behaviors/management, such as waiting in line were related to increased sedentary behavior. Staff nutrition behaviors were observed in less than 0.6% of scans.


SOSPAN is a reliable and valid tool to assess staff behaviors/management of PAaN in OSTPs.

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10.1123/apaq.2017-0010 apaq.2017-0010 REVIEW A Scoping Review of Inclusive Out-of-School Time Physical Activity Programs for Children and Youth With Physical Disabilities Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos * Viviane Grassmann * Krystn Orr * Amy C. McPherson * Guy E. Faulkner * F. Virginia

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Blanca Roman-Viñas, Fabio Zazo, Jesús Martínez-Martínez, Susana Aznar-Laín and Lluís Serra-Majem

weekend) 3 Physical Fitness INC There was very limited data to accurately assign a grade for this indicator School C+ 74% of schools offered their outdoor facilities out of school time 3 24 to 30% of schools where students were offered the mandated amount of Physical Education 3 Family and Peers INC No

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Nisha Botchwey, Myron F. Floyd, Keshia Pollack Porter, Carmen L. Cutter, Chad Spoon, Tom L. Schmid, Terry L. Conway, J. Aaron Hipp, Anna J. Kim, M. Renee Umstattd Meyer, Amanda L. Walker, Tina J. Kauh and Jim F. Sallis

Heart Association funds only). The topic areas are: • pregnancy and maternal health; • infant, child, and adolescent development; • behavioral economics; • role of health care providers and the health care system; • role of business and industry; • out-of-school time; • transportation, land use, urban

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David S. Walsh and Paul M. Wright

physical education to the margins of the educational system ( Amis, Wright, Dyson, Vardaman, & Ferry, 2012 ). Is it a coincidence that these decades saw Don’s most creative and innovative work occurring in out-of-school-time settings and affiliating more with the field of positive youth development, which

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Michael A. Hemphill and Tom Martinek

. References Akiva , T. , Li , J. , Martin , K.M. , Horner , C.G. , & McNamara , A.R. ( 2017 ). Simple Interactions: Piloting a strengths-based and interaction-based professional development intervention for out-of-school time programs . Child & Youth Care Forum, 46, 285 – 305 . doi:10.1007/s