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Heidi Y. Perkins, Andrew J. Waters, George P. Baum and Karen M. Basen-Engquist

Studies have shown that expectations about exercise outcomes are associated with exercise behavior. Outcome expectations can be assessed by self-report questionnaires, but a new method—the expectancy accessibility task—may convey unique information about outcome expectations that is less subject to respondent biases. This method involves measuring the reaction time to endorse or reject an outcome We examined the relationship of self-reported outcome expectations and expectancy accessibility tasks in a pilot study of sedentary endometrial cancer survivors (N = 20). After measuring outcome expectations and expectancy accessibility, participants were given an exercise program and asked to monitor exercise for 7 days using diaries and accelerometers. Analyses revealed no relationship between outcome expectation scores and exercise, but shorter response times to endorse positive exercise outcomes was related to more exercise in the next week (p = .02).

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Noam Eyal, Michael Bar-Eli, Gershon Tenenbaum and Joan S. Pie

The aim of this study was to examine whether outcome expectations can be generalized from one defined task to other tasks. A deception paradigm was employed in which outcome expectations were manipulated. High, low, or medium expectations toward performing five tasks, which gradually increased in complexity and shared a common skill, were manipulated. Ninety adult males were randomly assigned to manipulation groups. A within-subjects repeated measures ANOVA indicated that those manipulated by medium expectations showed elevated perceptions of outcome expectations. Their performance, however, was superior only in the two tasks most similar in complexity to the initial task. On the less similar tasks, the differences among the groups were insignificant. A generalization effect can therefore be demonstrated on outcome expectations and performance to a certain degree of task complexity. Implications of the superior performance of participants manipulated to produce medium outcome expectations are discussed.

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Katherine S. Hall, Thomas R. Wójcicki, Siobhan M. Phillips and Edward McAuley

Objective:

The current study examined the psychometric properties and validity of the Multidimensional Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale (MOEES) in a sample of older adults with physical and functional comorbidities.

Methods:

Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the hypothesized 3-factor model in 108 older adults (M age 85 yr) residing in continuing-care retirement communities.

Results:

Analyses supported the 3-factor structure of the MOEES reflecting physical, social, and self-evaluative outcome expectations, with a 12-item model providing the best fit. Theorized bivariate associations between outcome expectations and physical activity, self-efficacy, and functional performance were all supported.

Conclusions:

The 12-item version of the MOEES appears to be a reliable and valid measure of outcome expectations for exercise in this sample of older adults with physical and functional comorbidities. Further examination of the factor structure and the longitudinal properties of this measure in older adults is warranted.

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Julie S. Son, Deborah L. Kerstetter, Andrew J. Mowen and Laura L. Payne

There is a dearth of research conducted on the possible relationship between the global self-regulatory process of selective optimization with compensation (SOC) and leisure-time physical activity. Even less is known about SOC’s relationship to other social-cognitive factors known to influence physical activity. Therefore, this study examined the relationships between global self-regulation, constraint self-regulation, outcome expectations, and leisure-time physical activity with a sample of middle-aged and older adults (N = 271). One of the objectives was to test the interactive effect of global self-regulation and outcome expectations on constraint self-regulation. Another objective was to test the interactive effect of global self-regulation and outcome expectations on multiple measures of leisure-time physical activity. The authors found significant interactions between global self-regulation and outcome expectations for constraint self-regulation and duration of leisure-time physical activity. They discuss these results in terms of their implications for health-promotion programs to increase the leisure-time physical activity of people 50 years of age and older.

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Barbara Resnick

Development of a reliable and valid measure of outcome expectations for exercise for older adults will help establish the relationship between outcome expectations and exercise and facilitate the development of interventions to increase physical activity in older adults. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Outcome Expectations for Exercise-2 Scale (OEE-2), a 13-item measure with two subscales: positive OEE (POEE) and negative OEE (NOEE). The OEE-2 scale was given to 161 residents in a continuing-care retirement community. There was some evidence of validity based on confirmatory factor analysis, Rasch-analysis INFIT and OUTFIT statistics, and convergent validity and test criterion relationships. There was some evidence for reliability of the OEE-2 based on alpha coefficients, person- and item-separation reliability indexes, and R 2 values. Based on analyses, suggested revisions are provided for future use of the OEE-2. Although ongoing reliability and validity testing are needed, the OEE-2 scale can be used to identify older adults with low outcome expectations for exercise, and interventions can then be implemented to strengthen these expectations and improve exercise behavior.

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Iain Greenlees, Richard Buscombe, Richard Thelwell, Tim Holder and Matthew Rimmer

The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a tennis player’s body language and clothing (general vs. sport-specific) on the impressions observers form of them. Forty male tennis players viewed videos of a target tennis player warming up. Each participant viewed the target player displaying one of four combinations of body language and clothing (positive body language/tennis-specific clothing; positive body language/general sportswear; negative body language/tennis-specific clothing; negative body language/general sportswear). After viewing the target player, participants rated their impressions of the model’s episodic states and dispositions and gave their perceptions of the likely outcome of a tennis match with the target player. Analyses of variance revealed that positive body language led to favorable episodic impressions and low outcome expectations. Analysis also indicated that clothing and body language had an interactive effect on dispositional judgments. The study supports the contention that nonverbal communication can influence sporting interactions.

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Barbara Resnick

The purpose of this study was to test a model of overall activity in older adults. It was hypothesized that (a) mental and physical health directly influence sell-efficacy expectations; (b) mental and physical health, age, and self-efficacy expectations influence outcome expectations; and (c) all of these variables directly or indirectly influence overall activity. The sample included 175 older adults living in a continuing care retirement community, and a one-time interview was conducted. The mean age of the participants was 86 ± 5.7 years, and the majority were Caucasian (n = 173, 99%), women (n = 136, 78%), and unmarried (widowed or single; n = 137, 78%). Seven of the 10 hypothesized paths were significant. The variables physical health, self-efficacy expectations. and outcome expectations directly influenced activity, and age and mental health indirectly influenced activity through self-efficacy and outcome expectations. The data fit the model, and combined, these variables accounted for 29% of the variance in activity.

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Jason A. Mendoza, David Cowan and Yan Liu

Background:

Few reports examined long term predictors of children’s active commuting to school (walking or cycling to school, ACS).

Purpose:

To identify predictors of ACS over 1 school year among a sample of children with relatively high rates of ACS.

Methods:

Parents were surveyed in September 2010 (Time 1) and April 2011 (Time 2). The dependent variable was children’s commuting mode to school (active versus passive). Independent variables included: 1) parents’ outcome expectations (from Social Cognitive Theory: the expected risks/benefits for their child doing ACS), 2) distance to school, 3) participation in an adult-led walk to school group, 4) temperature, and 5) child demographics. Generalized mixed-models estimated odds ratios for ACS (n = 369 or 49.7% of Time 1 respondents).

Results:

Males (OR = 2.59, 95% CI [1.57–4.30]), adult-led walk to school group participation (OR = 1.80, 95% CI [1.14–2.86]), parents’ outcome expectations (OR = 1.26, 95% CI [1.14–1.39]), temperature (OR = 1.03, 95% CI [1.01–1.07), distance to school (OR = 0.23, 95% CI [0.14–0.37]), and Latino ethnicity (OR = 0.28, 95% CI [0.12–0.65]) were associated with ACS.

Conclusions:

Programs and policies sensitive to parents’ concerns (eg, adult-led walk to school groups) and targeting Latinos and girls appear promising for increasing ACS.

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Teresa M. Damush, Susan M. Perkins, Alan E. Mikesky, Melanie Roberts and John O’Dea

In order to provide successful interventions to increase physical activity among inactive older adults, it is imperative to understand motivational factors influencing exercise. The authors present data from 191 (baseline) and 125 (12-month) community-dwelling men and women with mean ages of 68.71 (7.47) and 67.55 (7.55) years, respectively, from a strength-training trial. Approximately 53% had diagnosed knee osteoarthritis. Using a Likert scale, participants self-reported their degree of motivation from personal, social, and environmental factors. Using multivariate analyses, the authors evaluated demographic and clinical correlates of motivational factors to join and continue with exercise. The following results were reported: Knee osteoarthritis was positively related to motivation from an organized exercise opportunity and from efficacy/outcome expectations, and knee pain was positively related to motivation from social support and experience with the exercise task. Understanding these motivators might help in targeting recruitment efforts and interventions designed to increase physical activity in older adults with lower extremity arthritis.

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Barbara Resnick, Christopher D’Adamo, Michelle Shardell, Denise Orwig, William Hawkes, J. Richard Hebel, Justine Golden, Jay Magaziner, Sheryl Zimmerman and Janet Yu-Yahiro

The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence to home-based exercise interventions among older women post hip fracture that were randomized to one of three exercise intervention groups or a routine care group. A total of 157 female hip fracture patients provided data for the intervention analysis. Factors evaluated baseline, 2, 6, and 12 months post hip fracture included demographic variables, adherence to treatment visits, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, stage of change for exercise, social support for exercise, mood, health status, pain, and fear of falling. The hypothesized model tested the direct and indirect impact of all study variables on adherence to exercise intervention sessions. Different factors appeared to influence adherence to visits across the recovery trajectory.