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Aaron D. Sciascia, Arthur J. Nitz, Patrick O. McKeon, Jennifer Havens, and Timothy L. Uhl

Patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) and physical performance measures allow clinicians to obtain both a patient’s perspective and a demonstrable assessment regarding their ability to perform activities in the context of disability, dysfunction, or impairment. 1 , 2 Taken individually, each

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Bernardo Gialanella, Francesco Grossetti, Marina Mazza, Laura Danna, and Laura Comini

conservative treatment fails. The goals of rotator cuff tear surgery are to decrease pain, improve functionality, and prevent subsequent extension of the defect. 1 Overall, repairs of rotator cuff tear have been shown to provide good-to-excellent outcomes in 93.3% of cases. 2 However, patients may show

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Aaron D. Sciascia, Arthur J. Nitz, Patrick O. McKeon, Jennifer Havens, and Timothy L. Uhl

Assessment tools such as patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) allow clinicians to obtain a patient’s perspective regarding his or her ability to perform activities often in the context of disability, dysfunction, or impairment. 1 , 2 Similarly, physical performance measures serve as

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Steven Salaga, Scott Tainsky, and Michael Mondello

$150 billion ( American Gaming Association, 2018a ). Sports wagering consumption and interest in league outcomes are commonly viewed as complements. The Nielsen Company projects National Football League (NFL) revenues to increase by $2.3 billion per year under a regulated and widely available legalized

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Shelby Waldron, J.D. DeFreese, Brian Pietrosimone, Johna Register-Mihalik, and Nikki Barczak

Federation of Sports Medicine, World Health Organization, and American Academy of Pediatrics, have released cautionary position statements warning against maladaptive physical and psychological outcomes of sport specialization, such as injury and burnout ( DiFiori, Benjamin, Brenner, & Gregory, 2014

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Christopher Napier, Christopher L. MacLean, Jessica Maurer, Jack E. Taunton, and Michael A. Hunt

kinetic outcomes. In a clinical context, increased step length, heel to center of mass distance, hip flexion angle at initial contact, and shank angle are all believed to be measures of overstriding. Relating these measures and their contribution to kinetic outcomes associated with running-related injury

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Christopher Kuenze, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram, Karin Pfieffer, Stephanie Trigsted, Dane Cook, Caroline Lisee, and David Bell

comprehensive description of physical activity characteristics, such as the frequency, intensity, and length of engagement. 5 Based on currently available evidence, it is unclear if the widely used patient-reported outcomes, such as the Tegner Activity Scale or Marx Activity Rating Scale, provide an assessment

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Otávio Luis Piva da Cunha Furtado, Mikko Häyrinen, Isabela dos Santos Alves, Leonardo Travitzki, and Márcio Pereira Morato

interactions, which are usually considered to influence the goal outcome ( Lopes et al., 2012 ). In a sport where all athletes are blindfolded, presumably, other factors will emerge as important components in penalty fail or success rates. On this matter, a first attempt was made by Molik et al. ( 2015 ), who

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Victoria McGee and J.D. DeFreese

potential to impact outcomes of athlete psychological health ( Jowett & Shanmugam, 2016 ). Psychological health outcomes of burnout and engagement are important to understand in athlete populations because increasing the overall health and well-being of athletes may lead to more satisfied and resilient

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Keith R. Lohse, Jincheng Shen, and Allan J. Kozlowski

capable of, addressing the consequences of missing data. In linear mixed-effects regression, missing data can reduce statistical power and produce bias. Data that are missing completely at random reduce power but do not bias parameter estimates. Data are missing at random when the outcome is subject